Common Names in English:
European Hop Hornbeam, Hop Hornbeam
deciduous, monoecious. Stipules present, free
, often deciduous, rarely persistent
. Leaves alternate, simple
, usually doubly serrate, rarely simply serrate, lobulate
, or entire; veins pinnate. Flowers unisexual
. Male inflorescence precocious
, pendulous, with numerous
overlapping bracts; each bract usually subtending
a small dichasium with 1-3 male flowers; stamens as many as and opposite sepals or, if sepals obsolete
, then stamens of inflorescence to 20; filaments
very short, connate
or nearly so; anthers
2-loculed, thecae connate or separate, opening by longitudinal
slits. Female inflorescence pendulous or erect
, with numerous overlapping bracts; each bract subtending a small dichasium with 2 or 3 flowers; calyx with 1-6 scalelike lobes
, or obsolete; petals absent; ovary inferior, 2-loculed; styles 2, free; ovules 2, or 1 by abortion
, pendulous from near apex of each locule. Fruit a nut or nutlet
or not. Seed 1, with straight embryo and flat or thickened cotyledons, without endosperm.
Six genera and 150-200 species: mainly in Asia, Europe, and North and South America; six genera (one endemic) and 89 species (56 endemic) in China.
Because of evolutionary divergence within the Betulaceae, the family has often been divided into tribes (i.e. , Betuleae, Carpineae, and Coryleae) or more recently into subfamilies (J. J. Furlow, J. Arnold Arbor . 71: 1-67. 1990) .
, 9--18 m
usually 1, branching mostly deliquescent, trunk and branches terete
of trunk and branches brownish gray to light brown, thin, smooth
, breaking and shredding
into shaggy vertical
strips and scales
generally inconspicuous. Wood
nearly white to light brown, very hard and heavy, texture
fine. Branches, branchlets
, and twigs
conspicuously 2-ranked; young twigs differentiated into long and short shoots
. Winter buds
, somewhat laterally compressed
, apex acute; scales many, imbricate, longitudinally striate
. Leaves on long and short shoots, 2-ranked. Leaf blade
to ovate, elliptic
, or obovate
with 10 or more pairs of lateral
veins, 2.5--13 × 1.5--6 cm, thin, margins
doubly serrate to serrulate
; surfaces abaxially glabrous
. Inflorescences: staminate
on branches, mostly in small, racemose clusters
, formed previous growing season
and exposed during winter, expanding with leaves; pistillate
to staminate on short, lateral, leafy new growth, solitary, ± erect
, bracts and flowers uncrowded. Staminate flowers
in catkins 3 per bract, crowded together on pilose
receptacle; stamens 3(--6), short; filaments
part way to base
divided into 2 parts, each 1-locular, apex pilose. Pistillate flowers 2 per bract. Infructescences
loosely imbricate, strobiloid clusters of closed
bracts; clusters pendulous, elongate; bracts deciduous with fruit, inflated, bladderlike, each bract enclosing 1 fruit. Fruits small nutlets
, ovoid, longitudinally ribbed
, often crowned with persistent
sepals and styles. x
Species ca. 5: mostly north temperate zones
In North America Ostrya consists of small trees in the northern temperate deciduous forest zone and in the mountains of southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. Mexican populations have generally been treated as conspecific with O. virginiana of eastern United States and Canada. They differ in various respects, however, including leaf shape and indumentum; the morphologic variation and phytogeography of the complex as a whole should be carefully examined. Ostrya carpinifolia Scopoli is a common and important forest tree of southern Europe.
Ostrya shares many features with Carpinus. The staminate catkins in most species of Ostrya are produced the season before anthesis but, unlike Carpinus, they are exposed during the winter. Dispersal occurs as it does in Carpinus, except that the bracts form closed, bladderlike structures rather than flat wings .
The wood of Ostrya is used for fuel, fence posts, and various other purposes. It was formerly utilized for manufacturing items subject to prolonged friction, including sleigh runners , wheel rims , and airplane propellers. Because of its hardness , it has been used for tool handles, mallet heads , and other hard wooden objects.
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 30-40' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,453 meters (0 to 8,048 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Engler, 1892
- Family: Betulaceae () - Gray, 1821 - Birch Family
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Faganae () - (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Carpinus italica Scop. Ex Steud. • Carpinus ostrya L. • Ostrya carpinifolia var. genuina Fliche • Ostrya italica carpinifolia H.J.P.Winkl. • Ostrya Italica Carpinifolia • Ostrya italica carpinifolia (Scop.) H. Winkl. • Ostrya italica Spach • Ostrya ladelchii Sanguin. • Ostrya vulgaris Willd.
Publishing author : Scop.
Members of the genus Ostrya
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
O. carpinifolia (European Hop Hornbeam) · O. chisosensis (Big Bend Hop-Hornbeam) · O. knowltonii (Ironwood) · O. virginiana (American Hop Hornbeam) · O. virginiana guatemalensis (American Hop-Hornbeam) · O. virginiana lasia (American Hop-Hornbeam) · O. virginiana var. chisosensis (Correll) Henrickson, comb. nov. ined. (American Hop-Hornbeam)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5846857
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-144615
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14388799
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:295664-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 295664-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 645747
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- Mean = 411.890 meters (1,351.345 feet), Standard Deviation = 520.820 based on 44 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]