Common Names in English:
Flowering Fern, Royal Fern
, herbaceous, frequently in clumps
. Stems creeping
, beset with old petiole
and black fibrous roots
absent; older stems seldom persisting. Leaves monomorphic
1--2-pinnate (2-pinnatifid) ; rachises grooved
. Pinnae monomorphic or dimorphic. Indument
of reddish to light brown hairs
. Veins dichotomous, running
. Sori absent; sporangia born on slightly modified fertile
segments of blades also possessing fully expanded pinnae, or sporangia covering blades lacking green expanded pinnae, clustered in marginal
zones, indusia lacking. Spores green, all alike. Gametophytes green, aboveground, obcordate
Genera 3, species 16--36 (1 genus with 3 species and 1 hybrid in the flora ) : nearly worldwide, temperate and tropical regions .
Osmundaceae are considered intermediate in several respects between eusporangiate and leptosporangiate ferns. In the absence of sori, simultaneous maturation of spores, and development of sporangia from several initial cells , they are much like eusporangiate ferns. Their large prothalli with projecting antheridia are similar to those of leptosporangiate ferns.
. Stems creeping
often somewhat erect
. Leaves dimorphic
leaves erect, often notably smaller than sterile
leaves in length
1--2-pinnate; pinnae monomorphic
to dimorphic, pinnatifid
Species 10: nearly worldwide, tropical and temperate regions .
Flowers: None. • Bloom Period: Late Spring • Flower Color: Brown • Flower Conspicuous: Tassel-like spore clusters
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Low • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Large, coarse , light green fronds with smooth edges form dense clumps . Fertile leaflets atop sterile fronds. Divided bright green foliage has rust colored flower spikes. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring • Growth Rate: Fast. • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: None • Mature Height (feet): 4.5 • Size: to 6 ft . tall, 4 to 6 ft. wide. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Excellent landscape plant near water features. Nice groundcover, specimen, or accent plant. • Care: Deer resistant. Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Feed frequently during growing season with a general purpose fertilizer . Cut back old fronds after new growth begins in spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,107 meters (0 to 6,913 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Prefers humus , wet, acidic soil. Adapts to various soil types and situations. • Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.3 • Maximum pH: 5.2 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Prefers part shade. Thrives in either full sun or shade. Sun tolerant with ample moisture. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium • Water Requirements: Keep surface of soil moist, but not soggy.
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -33°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 110 • Heat Zones: High: 9 (>120 to 150 days) Low:1 (< 1 days) (map) • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Order: Osmundales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Osmunda
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 28 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
O. cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. crenulata (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. frondosa (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. glandulosa (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. incisa (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. latipinnula (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea f. trifolia (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea L. var. glandulosa Waters (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea L. var. imbricata (Kunze) Milde (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea var. cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea var. glandulosa (Cinnamon Fern) · O. cinnamomea var. imbricata (Cinnamon Fern) · O. claytonia (Interrupted Fern) · O. claytoniana (Claytons Interrupted Fern) · O. claytoniana f. tomentosa (Interrupted Fern) · O. claytoniana var. vera (Interrupted Fern) · O. lunaria (Moonwort Grapefern) · O. regalis (Flowering Fern) · O. regalis f. abyssinica (Royal Fern) · O. regalis f. linearis (Royal Fern) · O. regalisvar. purpurascens (Flowering Fern) · O. regalis palustris (Royal Fern) · O. regalis spectabilis (Long-Sporing American Royal Fern) · O. regalis var. spectabilis (Flowering Fern) · O. regalis 'Cristata' (Crested European Royal Fern) · O. ruggii (Rugg's Osmunda) · O. virginiana (Rattlesnake Fern) · O. × ruggii (Rugg's Osmunda)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Dorset Environmental Records Centre - Bryophyte Survey of the Poole Basin Mires - NBN South West Pilot Project Case Studies
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644461
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17218
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:287924-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400804
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17218
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17169220
- MoBot NameID: 26602193
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPOSM01030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: OSRES
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 88
- R. David Whetstone, T. A. Atkinson "Osmundaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- R. David Whetstone, T. A. Atkinson "Osmunda". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 133.250 meters (437.172 feet), Standard Deviation = 226.180 based on 2,107 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]