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Ocimum basilicum

(Basil)

Overview

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Afrikaans:

Basilie, Basilikum

Common Names in Albanian:

Borziloku, Bozilok I Mermë

Common Names in Amharic:

Ba-So-Bi-La, Besobila, በሶቢለ

Common Names in Arabic:

Alrihan, Háabaq Nabatái, Habaq, Habaq (Habaqa), Raihan, Rehahn, Rihaan, Rihan, Rihan (Egypt), حبق, حَبَق, ريحان, رَيْحَان

Common Names in Armenian:

Šahaspram, Shahasbram, Shahaspram, Շահասպրամ

Common Names in Assamese:

Tulasii*

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Reĵḫan, Reyxan, Рејхан

Common Names in Basque:

Albaraka, Brazilla

Common Names in Bengali:

Babui Tulsi, Babuitulsi, Baburi Tulsi, Debunsha, Kalotulsi*, Khubkalam

Common Names in Bulgarian:

Bosilek, Босилек

Common Names in Burmese:

Laun*, Pinsein, Pinzainpinzin, Ziya Apyu

Common Names in Catalan:

Alfàbrega

Common Names in Chinese:

Luo Le

Common Names in Croatian:

Bosiljak

Common Names in Czech:

Bazalka, Bazalka Pravá

Common Names in Danish:

Basilik, Basilikum

Common Names in Dutch:

Basilicum, Baziel, Bazielkruid, Koningskruid

Common Names in English:

Basil, Basilie, Common Basil, Garden Basil, Roman Basil, Sweet Basil

Common Names in Esperanto:

Bazilio

Common Names in Estonian:

Basiilik, Vürtsbasiilik

Common Names in Finnish:

Basilika

Common Names in French:

Basilic, Basilic Commun, Framboisin (Antilles), Herbe Royale, Oranger Des Savetiers, Pistou

Common Names in Galician:

Albahaca

Common Names in Georgian:

Rehani, რეჰანი

Common Names in German:

Basilienkraut, Basilikum, Echtes Basilienkraut, Gartenhirnkraut, Gewöhnliches Basilienkraut, Königskraut, Königskraut

Common Names in Greek:

Vasiliko, Vasilikos

Common Names in Greek, Modern:

Basilikós, Vasilikos, Βασιλικός

Common Names in Gujarati:

Damaro, Damro, Nasabo, Sabje

Common Names in Hebrew:

Bazilikum, Rehan, בזיליקום, ריחן

Common Names in Hindi:

Babui Tulsi, Babul, Bahari, Barbar, Kali Tulsi, Rihan, Tulsi*, बाबूई तुलसी

Common Names in Hungarian:

Bazsalikom, Kerti Bazsalikom, Közönséges Bazsalikom

Common Names in Icelandic:

Basilíka

Common Names in Indonesian:

Indring, Kemangi Hutan, Kermangi, Lampes*, Ruku-Ruku*, Selaseh Mekah, Selasih

Common Names in Italian:

Basilico

Common Names in Japanese:

Ba-Zi-Ru, Bajiru, Ka-Mi-Me-Bo-U-Ki, Kami-Meboki*, Me-Bo-U-Ki, Meboki, Mebouki, Suiito Bajiru, カミメボウキ, バジル, メボウキ

Common Names in Kannada:

Kama Kasturi, Kamkusturi, Ramkasturi, Sajjebiya, Shri-Tulasi*, śrītuḷasi, Tuḷasi, Tulasi*, Tulasigidda, Tulasiya Sasyajati, Vishnu-Tulasi*, Viṣṇutuḷasi, ಕಾಮ ಕಸ್ತೂರಿ, ತುಳಸಿ, ತುಳಸಿಯ ಸಸ್ಯಜಾತಿ, ವಿಷ್ಣುತುಳಸಿ, ಶ್ರೀತುಳಸಿ

Common Names in Kazakh:

Nasıbaygül, Nasybajgül, Насыбайгүл

Common Names in Khmer:

Chi Korhom, Chi Neang Vong, Chi Sà, Mrea Preu*

Common Names in Korean:

Ba-Sil, Be-I-Jil, Be-Jil, Na-Reug, Na-Reug-Pul, Naruk, Naruk-Pul, Pasil, Peijil, Pejil, Yang-Ga-Jug, Yanggajuk, 나륵, 나륵풀, 바실, 베이질, 베질, 양가죽

Common Names in Lao:

Phak I Tou, Saphaa*

Common Names in Laotian:

Phak Bua La Pha, Phak Bua La Phe, Phak I Tou

Common Names in Latvian:

Baziliks

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Bazilikas, Kvapusis Bazilikas, Siauralapis Bazilikas*

Common Names in Malay:

Daun Kemangi (Indonesia), Daun Selaseh, Kemangi, Oku*, Ruku-Ruku, Ruku-Ruku*, Selaseh Besar, Sělasi, Selasi Jantan, Selasih Hijau, Sulasi*

Common Names in Malayalam:

Paccha, Pachcha, Sivatulasi*, Truinitru

Common Names in Maltese:

Ħabaq

Common Names in Marathi:

Sabja, Sabza, Tulasa*, Tuḷsa, तुळस, सब्जा

Common Names in Norwegian:

Basilikum

Common Names in Oriya:

Dhalatulasi

Common Names in Persian:

Deban-Shab, Firanj Mushk, Rayáahn, Reihan, Reyhan (Rehan, Reyhun, Rihan), Rýḥan, ریحان

Common Names in Polish:

Basylico, Bazylia Wonna

Common Names in Portuguese:

Alfavacão (Brazil), Alfavaca, Alfavaca-Cheirosa (Brazil), Basílico, Hierba De Vaquero, Manjericão, Manjericão (Brazil), Manjericão-Graúdo (Brazil), Manjericão, Manjerico

Common Names in Provençal:

Balicot, Baricot, Basali, Baseli, Basièli, Belicot

Common Names in Romanian:

Busuioc

Common Names in Russian:

Bazilik, Bazilik Obyknovennyi, Dushistye Vasilki, Dushki, Dušistye Vasil'ki, Duški, Базилик, Душистые васильки, Душки

Common Names in Sanskrit:

Ajaganothika, Krishnamula*, Manjari*, Manjarika, Munjariki, Surabhi, Tulasidevesha, Tulasii*, Tungi

Common Names in Serbian:

Bosiljak, Bosilje, Bosiok, Faslidjan, Maslidjan

Common Names in Sinhalese:

Hintala, Madurutala*, Sawandalata, Suwandutala, Suwndutala

Common Names in Slokakian:

Bazalka Pravá, Bazalky Pravej

Common Names in Slovak:

Basilika, Bazalienka, Bazalka, Bazalka Pravá

Common Names in Slovenian:

Bazilika

Common Names in Spanish:

Albacar, Albahaca, Albahaca Común, Albahaca Silvestre, Alfábega, Alhábega, Ocimo

Common Names in Swahili:

Mrihani

Common Names in Swedish:

Basilica, Basilika, Basilkaört

Common Names in Tagalog:

Balanoi, Loko-Loko*, Sulasi

Common Names in Tamil:

Sabja, Sada Tulasi, Tirnirupachai, Tirunirrippachai, Tirunīṛṛuppaccai, Tirunitru, Tirunutpatchi, Tiruttilai*, Tiruttiļāy, Tiruttizhai*, Tiviragandam, Tīvirakantam, Tuḷaci, Tulasi*, திருத்திழாய், திருநீற்றுப்பச்சை, தீவிரகந்தம், துளசி

Common Names in Telugu:

Bhutulasi, Oddhi*, Rudrajada, Tulsi-Chettu, Tuḷsicĕṭṭu, తుళసిచెట్టు

Common Names in Thai:

Horapa, Horapha, Kaprao, Krapau, Phak Iotu, กะเพรา, กะเพราช้าง, กะเพา, ผักอีตู่, แมงลัก, โหระพา

Common Names in Turkish:

Fesleğen, Feslien, Fesliğen, Peslen, Reyhan

Common Names in Twi:

Nunum

Common Names in Ukrainian:

Bazilìk, Bazylik, Vasil'ki Lìkars'kì, Vasil'ki Spravžnì, Vasylky Likarski, Vasylky Spravzhni, Базилік, Васильки лікарські, Васильки справжні

Common Names in Urdu:

Janglitulshi*, Rihan

Description

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Genus Ocimum

Herbs, subshrubs , or shrubs , aromatic . Leaves petiolate , dentate . Verticillasters 6(-10) -flowered, in terminal , pedunculate thyrses or panicles; bracts early deciduous, petiolate, margin entire, rarely longer than flowers. Flowers white; pedicel straight, apex recurved. Calyx ovoid to campanulate , declined in fruit, glandular outside, glabrous or occasionally villous at throat inside, limb 2-lipped; upper lip 3-toothed, middle tooth circular to obovate , margin winged, decurrent, lateral teeth shorter; lower lip 2 toothed , teeth narrower, apex acuminate to spinescent , sometimes approximate . Corolla tube slightly shorter than calyx or rarely exserted, not hairy annulate inside, dilated , obliquely campanulate at throat; limb 2-lipped, upper lip subequally (3- or) 4-lobed; lower lip somewhat elongated or not, declined, margin entire, flat or slightly concave . Stamens 4, exserted, declined on lower corolla lip, anterior 2 longer; filaments free or anterior 2 connate at base ; anthers ovoid-reniform, 1-locellate. Style longer than stamens, 2-cleft at apex; lobes subequal , subulate or flat. Nutlets ovoid or subglobose, smooth or glandular foveolate, viscid when moist, with a white basal areola.

About 100-150 species: temperate regions worldwide, especially in Africa and South America; five species in China.[1]

Physical Description

Species Ocimum basilicum

Herbs annual . Stems erect , 20-80 cm tall, apex retrorse puberulent , base glabrous , tinged red, much branched. Petiole ca. 1.5 cm, ± narrowly winged apically; leaf blade ovate to oblong , 2.5-5 × 1-2.5 cm, subglabrous, abaxially glandular , base attenuate, margin irregularly dentate or subentire , apex subobtuse to acute; lateral veins 3- or 4-paired. Thyrses 10-20 cm, puberulent; verticillasters puberulent or densely pilose , approximate apically; bracts sessile, oblanceolate , 5-8 mm, base attenuate, margin ciliate, apex acute, colored . Pedicel ca. 3 mm in flower, to 5 mm in fruit. Calyx campanulate , ca. 4 × 3.5 mm, pubescent outside, pilose at throat inside, tube ca. 2 mm; middle tooth of upper lip widest, ca. 2 × 1 mm, subcircular, concave , apex mucronate ; lateral teeth broadly ovate, ca. 1.5 mm, apex acute; lower lip teeth lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, apex spinescent , ciliate ; fruiting calyx persistent, conspicuously veined. Corolla purplish or with upper lip white, limb puberulent outside; tube ca. 3 mm, throat ± dilated ; upper lip wide, ca. 3 × 4.5 mm, 4-lobed, ± flat; lower lip purple, ca. 6 mm. Stamens free , slightly exserted, posterior 2 dentate, base puberulent. Nutlets dark brown, ovoid , ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, glandular foveolate. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Sep-Dec. [source]

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: White flower spikes in summer. • Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white

Foliage: Summer foliage: Leaves have a strong , fresh, clove-like scent.

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 8-36" tall.

Landscaping

Care: Pinch to delay flowering.

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Annual , Perennial

Growth

Culture: Space 8-12" apart.

Soil: Average well-drained soil. • Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun to part sun.

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Ocimum americanum L.

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Ocimum

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 134 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

O. americanum var. pilosum (Aniseed-Scented Basil) · O. americanum 'Dani' (Basil) · O. americanum 'Genoa Profumatissima' (Perfume Basil) · O. americanum 'Lime' (Basil) · O. basilicum (Basil) · O. basilicum basilicum (Sweet Basil) · O. basilicum citriodora (Lemon Basil) · O. basilicum citriodora 'Mrs. Burns' (Mrs. Burns Lemon Basil) · O. basilicum citriodorum 'Mrs. Burns' (Mrs. Burns Lemon Basil) · O. basilicum f. chlorocalyx (Sweet Basil) · O. basilicum f. chromocalyx (Sweet Basil) · O. basilicum 'Red Rubin' (Red Basil) · O. basilicum 'Minimum' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum var. purpurascens (Purpurascens Dark Opal Basil) · O. basilicum 'American Blue' (Ornamental Basil) · O. basilicum 'Anise' (Licorice Basil) · O. basilicum 'Ararat' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Aroma 2' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Aurelio' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Bageco Compact' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Baroness' (Basil 'baroness') · O. basilicum 'Basilico Greco' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Bonazza' (Basil 'bonazza') · O. basilicum 'Bordeaux' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Bouquet Mix' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Chinese Basil' (Chinese Basil) · O. basilicum 'Cinnamon' (Cinnamon Basil) · O. basilicum 'Compact Green Gem' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Crispum' (Crispum Lettuce-Leaf Basil) · O. basilicum 'Cuban' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Dwarf Greek' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Ebony Wonder' (Ornamental Basil) · O. basilicum 'Finissimo Verde a Palla' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Fino Verde' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Four Family' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Francesco's Tall Green' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genova' (Genova Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genova Profumitissima' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Compatto' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Giant' (Mammoth Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese O Comune' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Purple' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Selma' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Special Select' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Genovese Verde Migliorato' (Basil) · O. basilicum'Greek Columnar' (Greek Columnar Basil) · O. basilicum 'Greek Mini' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Green Bouquet' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Green Globe' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Green Ruffles' (Green Ruffles Basil) · O. basilicum 'Gustosa' (Basil 'gustosa') · O. basilicum 'Holly's Painted' (Ornamental Basil) · O. basilicum 'Italian Large Leaf' (Sweet Basil) · O. basilicum 'Italian Pesto' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Jon's Wild African' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Karamanos' (Greek Basil) · O. basilicum 'Large Sweet Italian' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Lesbos' (Lesbos Greek Column Basil) · O. basilicum 'Licorice' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Magical Michael' (Magical Michael Basil) · O. basilicum 'Magic Michael' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Mammoth' (Lettuce Leaf Basil) · O. basilicum 'Mammoth Sweet' (Lettuce Leaf Basil) · O. basilicum 'Marseillais' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Massive' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Mayo' (Yoeme Basil) · O. basilicum 'Mexican Spice' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Minette' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Miniature Puerto Rican' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Mini Purple' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Monstruoso' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Napoletano' (Lettuce Leaf Basil) · O. basilicum 'New Guinea' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Nufar' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Osmin' (Purple Basil) · O. basilicum 'Persian Lemon' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Piccolo' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Piccolo Fine Verde' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Pixie' (Globe Basil) · O. basilicum 'Profuma Di Genova' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Profumo' (Basil 'profumo') · O. basilicum 'Puerto Rican' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Purple Delight' (Purple Delight Basil) · O. basilicum 'Purple Ruffles' (Purple Ruffles Basil) · O. basilicum 'Queenette' (Thai Basil) · O. basilicum 'Ramastakuri' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Rick's Aussie' (Purple Basil) · O. basilicum 'Salad Leaf' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Serata' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Spice' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Spicy Globe' (Greek Basil) · O. basilicum 'Spicy Saber' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Sweet Broadleaf' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Sweet Dani' (Lemon Basil) · O. basilicum 'Sweet Fine' (Bush Basil) · O. basilicum 'Sweet Genovese' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Sweet Thai' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Thai' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Thai Magic' (Basil) · O. basilicum 'Tibetan' (Basil)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. "Ocimum". in Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 296. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-07