, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
with latex. Branches stout. Leaves in whorls of 3-5, rarely opposite; lateral
, subparallel, almost at a right
. Cymes subterminal
. Calyx deeply divided
, usually without glands
. Corolla salverform
, to 1 cm, throat
overlapping to right. Stamens inserted
in widening of corolla tube; anthers
from pistil head
, narrowly oblong
; disc absent. Ovaries 2, free or basally connate
; ovules 2-6, biseriate
on each side of a prominent
placenta. Style filiform
; pistil head shortly 2-cleft at apex. Drupes 1 or 2, smooth
; endocarp thick, hard. Seeds 2-4 per locule, flat, not comose
; endosperm none; cotyledons large, flat.
About 25 species: Malaysia, W Pacific Islands; three species cultivated in China.
Biome: Terrestrial .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Ochrosia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 56.
- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. 1895 London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url explanation of the plates , p. 432, p. 476.
- A handbook of tropical gardening and planting, with special reference to Ceylon, by H. F. Macmillan. .. Colombo, H.W. Cave & co., 1914. url p. 442, p. 580, p. 652.
- A systematic catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to or growing wild in Ceylon. Colombo: G. J. A. Skeen, 1885. url .
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 364.
- Annals of natural history. London, R. and J.E. Taylor, url p. 345, p. 345.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1919 1919 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 144, p. 148, p. 149, p. 151.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 582.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 50.
- In the Andamans and Nicobars; the narrative of a cruise in the schooner "Terrapin", with notices of the islands, their fauna, ethnology, etc., by C. Boden Kloss. .. London: J. Murray, 1903. url p. 337.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 458.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 195.
- Nomenclature of plants; a text for the application by the case method of the International code of botanical nomenclature. New York, Ronald Press Co. url p. 126, p. 148.
- Observations of a naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899 / by H.B. Guppy. London: Macmillan and Co., 1903-1906. url p. 152, p. 153, p. 580.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url , p. 555.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url p. 164, p. 17.
- Science progress. London: Scientific Press, [1894-1898] url p. 465.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 729.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 478, p. 60.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 22 1887 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 337, p. 339, p. 553.
- The Philippine journal of science. 9 1914 Manila. url p. 130, p. 557.
- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 394.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 3 1882 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 638.
- The illustrated dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists. Ed. by George Nicholson. Assisted by Professor J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. London: L. U. Gill, -89. url p. 466.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 676, p. 759, p. 884.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 13, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Strahm, W. 1998. Ochrosia borbonica. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 02February2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5890160
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15028582
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:80491-1
- IUCN ID: 227552
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1021005
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ochrosia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 163. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Strahm, W. 1998. Ochrosia borbonica. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 February 2012. [back]