Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Black Gum, Black Tupelo, Black-Gum, Blackgum, Pepperidge, Sour Gum, Sour-Gum, Tupelo
Common Names in unspecified:
Black Gum, Black Tupelo, Blackgum
, dioecious or polygamo-monoecious
. Leaves alternate, simple
, estipulate. Flowers 5-merous, ± regular, subtended by 1-5 bracts; male ones in heads
, or umbels; female and hermaphroditic
ones solitary or in 2-12-flowered heads. Calyx tube
to ovary in bisexual
or female flowers; lobes
small or obsolete
. Petals usually 5-10 (or absent). Stamens in male flowers usually 10 or more in 2 ± distinct
whorls around a nectariferous
disk. Ovary inferior, 1-8-loculed, with 1 pendulous, apotropous
ovule per locule. Fruit a drupe; each locule of stone
opening at apical part by a ± triangular abaxial
at germination. Seeds 1-5; embryo straight; endosperm copious
Five genera and about 30 species: mostly in temperate regions of E Asia and E North America; three genera (two endemic) and ten species (eight endemic) in China.
Recent studies suggest that this family can alternatively be treated as part of the Cornaceae (Xiang et al. , Amer. J. Bot. 85: 285-297. 1998).
dioecious. Leaves often crowded near ends of branches, estipulate. Flowers unisexual
, usually in heads
or short racemes
, in axil of a bract with 2 bracteoles. Male flowers 5-merous. Stamens 10, arranged in two alternate whorls; filaments
, with lateral
lengthwise slits; disk pulvinate
. Female flowers (4 or) 5-merous; staminodes usually present. Ovary inferior, 1(or 2) -loculed, 1-ovuled; style bifid, with stigmatic
at inside of stylar
arms. Fruit drupaceous
, laterally flattened, with persistent
calyx and disk. n = 22 [in Nyssa javanica (Blume) Wangerin (Mehra & Bawainin, Evolution 23: 466-481. 1969) ].
About 12 species: four in North America, one in Costa Rica, one from India to Malaysia, and seven (five endemic) in China.
According to C. Q. Zhang (pers. comm. ), most Chinese species of Nyssa are endangered and some of them may already have become extinct .
ID Features: Dark blue fruit on female trees only. Imbricate large, buds that or slightly downy. Alternate leaf arrangement. Leathery, elliptical leaves. Slender, reddish brown stems. Branches at a stiff 90 degree angle. Distinctive leaf scar.
Flowers: Not ornamentally significant. • Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: chartreuse, pale green, yellow-green • Flower Conspicuous: Inconspicuous
Foliage: Glossy • Foliage Shape: Ovate • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , ovate leaves. 3" to 6" long. 1.5" to 3" wide. Serrated leaf margins. Glossy dark green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Florescent yellow to orange to red or purple colors. Very showy.
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate: about 1' per year. • Size: to 30 to 50 ft . tall, 20 to 30 ft. wide, can become larger.
Landscape Uses: Specimen. Street tree . Lawn tree. For fall foliage . • Liabilities: Leaf spot. Rusts. Tupelo leaf miner. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Hardy to zone 4.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,064 meters (0 to 6,772 feet).
Culture: Space 20-40' apart. Has a taproot , making it difficult to transplant. Prefers moist, well-drained, acidic deep soils. Full sun . Fire resistant. Fall pruning recommended.
Soil: Organic , moist, well-drained soil. Tolerates very wet soil. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun
Moisture: Water Requirements: Once established needs only occasional water. Adapts to wet or dry sites.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Cornanae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Nyssa multiflora var. sylvatica (Marshall) S.Watson • Nyssa sylvatica var. caroliniana (Poir.) Fern. • Nyssa sylvatica var. dilatata Fern. • Nyssa sylvatica var. typica Fern.
Publishing author : Marshall
Members of the genus Nyssa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 14 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
N. aquatica (Cotton Gum) · N. biflora (Swamp Black Gum) · N. ogeche (Ogeechee Tupelo) · N. sinensis (Chinese Tupelo) · N. sylvatica (Black Gum) · N. sylvatica biflora (Black Tupelo) · N. sylvatica var. sylvatica (Black Tupelo) · N. sylvatica 'Autumn Cascade' (Weeping Blackgum) · N. sylvatica 'Bernheim Select' (Black Gum Bernheim Select) · N. sylvatica 'Pendula' (Weeping Blackgum) · N. sylvatica 'Red Rage' (Black Gum) · N. sylvatica 'Sheffield Park' (Black Gum) · N. sylvatica 'Wildfire' (Wildfire Blackgum) · N. ursina (Bear Tupelo)
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744314
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:271953-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 25455
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27821
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 271953-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDNYS01030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: NYSYT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 84
- Haining Qin & Chamlong Phengklai "Nyssaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 300. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Haining Qin & Chamlong Phengklai "Nyssa". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 300, 301. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 283.920 meters (931.496 feet), Standard Deviation = 340.950 based on 107 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]