Shrub , native to China and Japan, wood very hard, sacred to Chinese.
- Nandina domestica is commonly cultivated as an ornamental . China and Japan have been considered the possible sources of cultivated material . Seedlings are frequent in the vicinity of plantings , and mature plants have been found far from areas of current cultivation in the southeastern United States. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Nan Tian Zhu
Common Names in English:
Heavenly Bamboo, Common Nandina, Heavenly-Bamboo, Nandina, Nanten, Sacred Bamboo, Sacred-Bamboo, Southern Heaven-Bamboo
Common Names in French:
Bambou Sacré De Chine, Nandine Commune
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Bambù Sacro Cinese, Nandina
Common Names in Japanese:
Nanten, Nanten Zoku
Common Names in Korean:
Nam Cheon, Namchn
Common Names in Latin:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Avenca-Japonêsa, Bambú-Celeste, Bambú-Do-Céu
Common Names in Russian:
Herbs or shrubs
or deciduous, sometimes rhizomatous
. Stems with or without spines. Leaves alternate, opposite, or fascicled, simple
, 2-3-foliolate, or 1-3-pinnately or 2-3(-4) -ternately compound
; stipules present or absent; venation
pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal
, cymes, umbels (or umbel-like), spikes, or panicles, or flowers solitary or in pairs, flowers pedicellate
or sessile. Flowers bisexual
, inconspicuous or showy, radially symmetric
absent (except in Vancouveria ) ; sepaloid
bracteoles 0-9; perianth sometimes absent ( Achlys ), more frequently present, 2- or 3-merous, or sepals and petals intergrading ( Nandis ) ; sepals 6, distinct
, often petaloid
, not spurred
; petals 6-9, distinct, plane
present; stamens 6; anthers
dehiscing by valves
slits; ovary superior, apparently 1-carpellate; placentation marginal
or appearing basal; style present or absent, sometimes persistent
in fruit as beak
. Fruits follicles, berries
, or utricles. Seeds 1-50, sometimes arillate
; endosperm abundant; embryo large or small; mature
on elongating stalk
Genera 15, species ca. 650 (8 genera, 33 species in the flora ) : widespread, well represented in the north temperate zone.
Berberidaceae presents several interesting biogeographic features. Achlys is disjunct from western North America to east Asia with few morphologic differences between taxa. Diphylleia, Jeffersonia, and Podophyllum, each with a single eastern North American species, exhibit wide disjunctions to east Asia. Caulophyllum has three species, one in east Asia and two in the flora. Vancouveria is endemic to northwestern United States with nearest relations to Epimedium Linnaeus (H. Loconte and J. R. Estes 1989b; W. T. Stearn 1938), an exclusively Eastern Hemisphere genus.
Nandina, Berberis, Epimedium, and Podophyllum are cultivated.
The perianth of Berberidaceae is commonly composed of three distinct types of organs, but terminology for the organs varies from author to author. In our treatment, we refer to the small, outer parts as bracteoles (collectively forming a calyculus) ; the large, middle parts as sepals; and the innermost parts, which are commonly nectariferous , as petals. Some authors have referred to the bracteoles as outer sepals and to the petals as staminodes.
, to ca.
. Rhizomes absent. Aerial
, mostly unbranched, with leaves densely clustered mostly along distal 1/3 of plant. Leaves persistent
, alternate, 2-3-pinnately compound
attached at base
, petioles and petiolules
swollen at base. Leaf blade broadly ovate
in overall outline, 30-50 cm; leaflet
to ovate to lanceolate, margins
pinnate. Inflorescences terminal
panicles of dozens to hundreds
of flowers. Flowers 3-merous, 5-7 mm; bracteoles present; all perianth parts caducous
, cream to white; sepals and petals intergrading, 27-36; nectariferous
petals absent; stamens 6; anthers
dehiscing by longitudinal
slits; pollen exine punctate
; ovary club-shaped; placentation submarginal
; style central. Fruits berries
, red to purplish, orbicular
. Seeds 1-3, grayish or brownish; aril absent.
Species 1: North America, Asia.
Nandina is treated as a separate family , Nandinaceae, by A. Takhtajan (1986).
Species Nandina domestica
Stems erect . Wood and pith bright yellow. Leaves frequently reddish tinged, 5-10 dm; petioles basally enlarged and clasping . Leaflets 9-81, nearly sessile, leaflet blades 4-11 1.5-3 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences with hundreds of flowers, 1-2 dm. Flowers fragrant, pedicellate ; perianth segments imbricate, weakly 2-4-seriate. Berries 6-9 mm. Seeds mostly 2. 2 n = 20. Flowering spring-summer (May-early Jul) ; fruiting summer-fall (Sep-Dec). [source]
Habit: Upright semi-deciduous shrub . • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Red berries October through winter. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Finely divided , pointed • Foliage Shape: Lance-shaped • Foliage Color: Green • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Bronze • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Bronze • Spring foliage: Bronze • Summer foliage: Green • Fall foliage: Red • Winter foliage: Red • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate. • Mature Height (feet): 8.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 8 • Size: 4-8' tall, 4-6' wide. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Moderate • Lifespan: Lifespan
Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Old home sites; woodlands, mesic flood plains , hammocks ; 0-600 m ; introduced ; Ala ., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., N.C., S.C., Tex.; native , Asia (Japan, China, India). [source]
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,176 meters (0 to 3,858 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Low • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: High
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to part sun. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: High • Water Requirements: Once established needs only occasional water.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Berberidaceae () - Durande, 1782, nom. cons. - bayberries
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Thunb. Publication
: Nov. Gen. Pl. [Thunberg] 1:
14. 1781; Fl.
Jap. 147. 1784.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Nandina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 28 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
N. domestica (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica nana 'Firehouse' (Firehouse Dwarf Purple Nandina) · N. domestica var. Heavenly Bamboo (Heavenly Bamboo Nandina) · N. domestica var. leucocarpa (Yellow-Fruited Nandina) · N. domestica var. linearifolia (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Compacta' (Compact Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Filamentosa' (Dwarf Nandina) · N. domestica 'Firehouse' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Fire Power' (Dwarf Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Gulf Stream' (Gulf Stream Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Harbor Belle' (Harbor Belle Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Harbour Dwarf' (Dwarf Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Monfar' (Nandina) · N. domestica 'Monum' (Plum Passion® Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Moon Bay' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Moyers Red' (Dwarf Nandina) · N. domestica 'Nana Purpurea' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Okame' (Okame Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Plum Passion' (Plum Passion Nandina) · N. domestica 'Richmond' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Robinet' (Dwarf Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Royal Princess' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'San Gabriel' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Sienna Sunrise' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Umpqua Chief' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Umpqua Princess' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Umpqua Warrior' (Heavenly Bamboo) · N. domestica 'Woods Dwarf' (Dwarf Nandina)
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- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The florist cultivator, or, Plain directions for the management of the principal florist flowers, shrubs, etc. etc.: adapted to the flower-garden, shrubbery, and greenhouse: with select lists of the finest roses, geraniums, carnations, pinks, auriculas, polyanthuses, tulips, dahlias, heartsease, &c &c.. .. / by Thomas Willats. London: J. Ridgeway, 1836. url p. 216.
- The florist's guide; containing practical directions for the cultivation of annual, biennial, and perennial flowering plants, of different classes, herbaceous and shrubby, bulbous, fibrous, and tuberous-rooted; including By T. Bridgeman. New York: Printed by A. Hanford, 1847. url p. 115.
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- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 152, p. 34.
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645626
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18848
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13731324
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:107544-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 25015
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18848
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 107544-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBER07010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: NADO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6920
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- Mean = 134.180 meters (440.223 feet), Standard Deviation = 220.450 based on 73 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]