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Myoporum sandwicense

(Bastard Sandalwood)


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Shrub or tree native to coastal and subalpine habitats on all of the major Hawaiian Islands. The odor of the heartwood is similar to that of sandalwood and when the sandalwood trade was at its peak naio was sometimes exported as a substitute. The wood is hard and durable and naio timbers were used by the Hawaiians as the main support of houses.


Threat status

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in English:

Bastard Sandalwood, Bastard-Sandalwood, Naio, Sandal-Wood

Common Names in Hawaiian:



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Family Scrophulariaceae

Herbs, sometimes shrubs , rarely trees ; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled , or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple or sometimes pinnately dissected . Inflorescences racemes , spikes, or thyrsoid panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect , usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic . Calyx often persistent , (2-) 4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate . Corolla sympetalous ; limb (3 or) 4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous , sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal , free or confluent . Nectary often present at base of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland . Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous , rarely 2 per locule, on axile placentas, anatropous or hemitropous . Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal , loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores or irregularly dehiscent , rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous , sometimes winged ; testa often reticulate ; hilum lateral or ventral; endosperm fleshy or absent; embryo straight or curved .

About 220 genera and 4500 species: cosmopolitan ; 61 genera (seven endemic) and 681 species (415 endemic) throughout China but with a greater concentration in SW China.[1]


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Myoporum sandwicense st. -johnii Webster • Myoporum sandwicense var. degeneri Webster • Myoporum sandwicense var. fauriei (Levl.) Kraenzlin • Myoporum sandwicense var. lanaiense Webster • Myoporum sandwicense var. stellatum Webster


Publishing author : A.Gray Publication : Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts vi. (1862) 52.

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

An accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Myoporum

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

M. acuminatum (Western Boobialla) · M. boninense australe (Boobialla) · M. floribundum (Slender Myoporum) · M. insulare (Boobyalla) · M. kermadecense (Kermadec Ngaio) · M. laetum (Mousehole Tree) · M. laetum 'Carsonii' (Carsons Sea Hedge) · M. montanum (Waterbush) · M. pacifica (Myoporum) · M. parvifolium (Creeping Boobialla) · M. parvifolium 'Fine Leaf Form' (Creeping Boobialla) · M. parvifolium 'Prostratum' (Prostrate Myoporum) · M. platycarpum (Sugarwood) · M. sandwicense (Bastard Sandalwood) · M. sandwicense var. latifolia (Bastard-Sandalwood) · M. sandwicense var. st.johnii (Bastard-Sandalwood)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:



  1. Deyuan Hong, Hanbi Yang, Cun-li Jin, Manfred A. Fischer, Noel H. Holmgren & Robert R. Mill "Scrophulariaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
Last Revised: 2015-02-06