Small tree from E. India with capsules about a foot long that split lengthwise into three segments. The young fruits, shoots , and flowers are used as a cooked vegetable, especially in the Philippines. Even the roots are source of edible condiment. A nondrying oil , "oil of ben," is obtained from the seeds.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Habbah Ghaliah, Rawag (Sudan), Shagara Al Ruway (Sudan)
Common Names in Bambara:
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Burmese:
Dan Da Lun, Dandalonbin
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Benboom, Peperwortel Boom
Common Names in English:
Ben Oil Tree, Behen Tree, Behn Tree, Ben Tree, Ben-Oil-Tree, Benzolive Tree (Usa), Benzolive-Tree, Bridal Veil, Coatli, Drumstick, Drumstick Tree, Drumsticktree, Horse-Radish Tree, Horseradish Tree, Horseradish-Tree, Horseradishtree, Maranga, Moringa, West Indian Ben
Common Names in French:
Ben Ailé, Ben Ailée, Ben Oléifère, Moringa Ailée, Pois Quénique
Common Names in German:
Behenbaum, Behennussbaum, Meerrettichbaum
Common Names in Gujarati:
Common Names in Hausa:
Bagaruwar Maka (Nigeria), Bagaruwar Masar (Nigeria), Barambo, Danga, Koraukin Zaila (Nigeria), Rimin Nacara (Nigeria), Rimin Turawa (Nigeria), Samarin, Shipka Hali (Nigeria), Shuka Halinka (Nigeria), Zôgala Gandi (Niger), Zogale, Zogalla-Gandi (Nigeria)
Common Names in Hindi:
Munagaa, Muruggai, Sahijan, Sanjna, Segra, Sekta Ni Sing, Shajmah, Shajna, Shekta (As M Pterygosperma), Soanjna, Suhujna, सहुनजा, सौंजना
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Khmer:
Common Names in Malay:
Kalor (Indonesia), Kelor
Common Names in Malayalam:
Moringa, Muringa, Sigru
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Oriya:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Acácia Branca, Moringa, Muringueiro
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Shobhanjana, Sobhan Jana, Sobhanjana
Common Names in Sinhalese:
Murungà, Murunga (Bean / Pod), Murunga Kolle (Leaves)
Common Names in Somali:
Common Names in Spanish:
Arbol De Las Perlas, Arbol Do Los Aspáragos, Ben, Jacinto (Panama), Jasmin Francés, Jazmin Francés (Puerto Rico), Maranga, Maranga Calalu (Honduras), Marango (Costa Rica), Palo De Abejas (Dominican Republic), Palo De Aceite ( dominican Republic), Paraíso, Paraíso Blanco, Paraíso Blanco (Guatemala), Perlas (Guatemala), Resada (Puerto Rico)
Common Names in Swahili:
Mlonge (Kenya), Mlongo (Kenya), Mronge (Kenya), Mrongo (Kenya), Mzungu (Kenya), Mzunze (Kenya)
Common Names in Tagalog:
Malungai, Malunggay Talbos, Mulangai, Mulangay
Common Names in Tamil:
Common Names in Telugu:
Common Names in Thai:
Ka Naeng Doeng, Ma Khon Kom, Ma Rum (Bean / Pod), Phak I Huem, Phak I Hum, Phak Ma Rum (Leaves), Phak Nuea Kai, Se Cho Ya
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Common Names in Yoruba:
Ewé Igbale, Ewé Ilé (Nigeria), Ewe Igbale (Nigeria), Idagbo Monoye (Nigeria)
, or herbs, deciduous, massive to slender, tuberous
when young and sometimes as adults
with gum canals. Leaves alternate, 1-3(or 4) -imparipinnate, glabrous
opposite, entire, sometimes caducous
; stipules absent but stalked
present at base
and leaflets. Flowers borne in axillary
, white to yellow or red, actinomorphic
to zygomorphic, with or without hypanthium. Sepals 5, often reflexed
. Petals 5, equal or unequal, often reflexed. Stamens in 2 series, 5 perfect
and 5 reduced to staminodes; filaments
. Pistil 1; ovary superior, borne on short gynophore
, 1-loculed; placentas 3, parietal
; ovules numerous
; style 1; stigma minute. Fruit a capsule, 3-12-ribbed, sometimes with elongated beak
. Seeds numerous, 3-winged or wingless, without endosperm.
One genus and ca. 13 species: NE and SW Africa, SW Asia, India, Madagascar: one species (introduced ) in China.
Species Moringa oleifera
to 12 m
but not fissured
, 3-pinnate, 25-60 cm, with stalked
exuding clear or amber liquid at base
in 4-6 pairs, ovate
, or oblong
, 1-2 × 0.5-1.2 cm,
when young but glabrous
at maturity, base rounded to cuneate,
slender, 1-2 mm.
a widely spreading
, 10-30 cm; bracts linear
1 mm. Flowers white to cream, fragrant, somewhat resembling an inverted
Fabaceae flower with 2 dorsal sepals and 1 dorsal petal usually remaining
unreflexed and forming a projecting
"keel" while the rest
of the perianth reflexes down
to form a "banner" at right
to the "keel", each flower borne on a false pedicel
7-15 mm; true pedicel 1-2 mm. Sepals lanceolate to linear-lanceolate,
0.7-1.4 mm, usually puberulent
. Petals spatulate
, 1-2 cm, glabrous
or puberulent at base. Stamens hairy
at base. Ovary hairy. Capsule
3-valved, 20-50 × 1-3 cm, dehiscent
. Seeds subglobose, 3-angled,
8-15 mm in diam. excluding wings
; wings 0.5-1 cm wide, rarely absent.
, fr. Jun-Dec. [source]
A variant with wingless seeds has been collected in S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna Dai Zu Zizhizhou) : K . S. Chow & P. P. Wan 80197 (MO). [source]
Habit: Tree , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 15-20' tall.
Cultivated for ornament, sometimes escaping..
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 101.73 meters (333.76 feet).
Culture: Space 8-10' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Moringa moringa (L.) Millsp. • Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner.
Publishing author : Lam. Publication : Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 398 1785 [1 Aug 1785]
Members of the genus Moringa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1705, p. 2067, p. 2303, p. 37.
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- Chen Wei-qiu. 1984. Moringaceae. In: Fu Shu-hsia & Fu Kun-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 34(1): 6-8.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), The System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668205
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-503874
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13761168
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:584736-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 24597
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503874
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 584736-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMRN01010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MOPT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 48308
- Lianli Lu & Mark Olson "Moringaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 196. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Moringa". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 196. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Moringa oleifera". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 196. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 567.540 based on 157 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]