Vine , Climber . Mikania micrantha is a fast growing, perennial , creeping and twining plant, commonly called mile-a-minute because of its vigorous and rampant growth habit. It grows best where fertility , organic matter, soil moisture, and humidity are all high and damages or kills other plants by cutting out the light and smothering them. Not to be confused with Polygonum perfoliatum (also mile-a-minute weed ).
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Common Names in English:
American Rope Mikania Micrantha, American Rope, Bittervine, Chinese Creeper, Climbing Hempweed, Falso Guaco, Kwalo Koburu, Liane Americaine, Mile-A-Minute, Mile-A-Minute Weed, Ovaova, Wa Mbosuvu
Common Names in Fijian:
Usuvanua, Wa Bosucu, Wa Mbosuthu, Wa Mbutako, Wa Ndamele
Common Names in French:
Liane Americaine, Liane-Serpent
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Niuean:
Common Names in Portuguese:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, sometimes suffrutescent
) [non-viney perennials, shrubs
], to 300[-1500+] cm. Stems usually twining
to scrambling (terete
, or [4-] 6-angled, sometimes winged
), branched. Leaves cauline; opposite [whorled
palmately 3[-7]-nerved [pinnately nerved], ± ovate
or deltate-ovate to triangular [linear
entire or undulate
, often gland-dotted. Heads discoid
, in corymbiform
, thyrsiform] arrays. Involucres ± cylindric
, [1-]2-3[-4] mm diam. (usually each subtended by 1 bractlet
). Phyllaries persistent
, 4 in ± 2 series (outer pair imbricate over inner pair), not notably nerved, lanceolate, linear, or oblong
often swollen), ± equal. Receptacles flat (glabrous), epaleate. Florets 4; corollas usually white, sometimes pink to rose or purplish, throats
5, linear or triangular to deltate; styles: bases slightly, if at all, enlarged, glabrous, branches ± filiform
]. Cypselae ± prismatic
, [4-]5[-10]-ribbed, glabrous or puberulent, sometimes gland-dotted; pappi persistent, of [20-]30-60 (white, buff, pinkish, or purplish) barbellulate
in 1-2 series (distinct
or basally connate
). x = 16-20.
Species ca. 450: overwhelmingly neotropical (9 species in the Old World tropics), some temperate North American and South American.
All species of Mikania in the flora belong to M . sect. Mikania in the sense of W. C. Holmes (1996).
Species Mikania micrantha
A branched, slender-stemmed perennial vine . The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs along the stems and are heart-shaped or triangular with an acute tip and a broad base . Leaves may be 4-13 cm long. The flowers, each 3-5 mm long, are arranged in dense terminal or axillary corymbs. Individual florets are white to greenish-white. The seed is black, linear-oblong, five-angled and about 2 mm long. Each seed has a terminal pappus of white bristles that facilitates dispersal by wind or on the hair of animals (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk).
Habit: Vine , Subshrub
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,936 meters (0 to 16,194 feet).
Ecology: Once established , Mikania micrantha spreads at an alarming rate, readily climbing and twining on any vertical support , including crops , bushes, trees , walls and fences. Its shoots have been reported to grow up to 27 mm a day. Vegetative reproduction is also efficient and vigorous. Although intolerant of heavy shade it readily colonises gaps . Mikania micrantha damages or kills other plants by cutting out the light and smothering them. In this respect it is especially damaging in young plantations and nurseries. It also competes for water and nutrients , but perhaps even more importantly, it is believed that the plant releases substances that inhibit the growth of other plants. Mikania micrantha is one of the three worst weeds of tea in India and Indonesia and of rubber in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Samoa, incursions of M. micrantha have caused the abandonment of coconut plantations, and the weed has been reported to kill large breadfruit trees. It also causes serious problems in oil palm, banana, cacao and forestry crops, and in pastures. While it does not grow well in rice paddies, it can encroach from the edges to smother the crop. (Northern Territory Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development)
Reproduces sexually by seeds, and vegetatively by rooting at nodes (Joel Miles ).A single plant may cover over 25 square metres within a few months, and release as many as 40,000 viable seeds every year. In some locations flowering and seed production are during short days only.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Biological Diversity of the Guiana Shield , CONABIO, Caribbean Checklist , New Zealand Plant Name Database, Flora Malesiana, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Colombia, Queensland Census. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:620122B1-5A9F-4E4B-8EB7-03842EED9B9C
Last scrutiny: 21-Aug-09
Members of the genus Mikania
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
M. congesta (Guaco) · M. cordata (Heartleaf Hempvine) · M. cordifolia (Florida Keys Hempvine) · M. fragilis (Fragile Hempvine) · M. micrantha (American Rope Mikania Micrantha) · M. millei (Poroto Angu) · M. odoratissima (Fragrant Hempvine) · M. pachyphylla (Luquillo Mountain Hempvine) · M. porosa (Puerto Rico Hempvine) · M. scandens (Climbing Boneset Mikania Scandens) · M. stevensiana (Maricao River Hempvine)
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- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 920.
- Compositae newsletter. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1975- url p. 115, p. 18, p. 32, p. 64.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 51 2005 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 100, p. 103, p. 115, p. 128, p. 165, p. 189, p. 377, p. 377, p. 448, p. 457, p. 553, p. 71, p. 89.
- Contributions to the flora of Venezuela / Julian A. Steyermark and collaborators. 28 1957 Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1957. url p. 1133.
- Fifty years of botany; golden jubilee volume of the Botanical Society of America, edited by William Campbell Steere. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1958. url p. 263.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 297, p. 298.
- Flora of Costa Rica. .. by Paul C. Standley. .. 18 1938 Chicago, 1937. url p. 1497.
- Flora of Guatemala / Dorothy L. Nash, Louis O. Williams; genera contributed by Kenneth M. Becker. .. [et al.]. 24 1976 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1976. url p. 107, p. 110.
- Flora of Jamaica, containing descriptions of the flowering plants known from the island, by William Fawcett and Alfred Barton Rendle. London.Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1910- url p. 185, p. 189.
- Flora of Peru... by J. Francis Macbride. 13 1936 Chicago, 1936- url p. 19.
- Flora of Peru: Family compositae: Walter C. Holmes, Sidney McDaniel. 9 1982 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1982. url fig. 6 , list of illustrations , p. 16, p. 2, p. 22, p. 36, p. 37, p. 46, p. vi, p. vii.
- Flora of Yucatan, by Paul C. Standley. 3 1930 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 447.
- Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras, by Paul C. Standley. 10 1931 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1931. url p. 37, p. 386, p. 55.
- IUCN Directory of Protected Areas in Oceania IUCN url p. 442.
- Journal of Hymenoptera research. Washington, D.C.: International Society of Hymenopterists, [1992- url p. 176.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 4 1895 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 211.
- Montana weed management plan / Helena, Mont.: Montana Dept. of Transportation, 2008. url .
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 294.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 164, p. 195, p. 196, p. 236, p. 275, p. 278, p. 406.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 1022, p. 1024.
- The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, by Paul C. Standley. City of Washington, The Smithsonian Institution, 1927. url p. 31.
- The forests and flora of British Honduras / by Paul C. Standley and Samuel J. Record; in cooperation with the Conservator of Forests and the Agricultural Officer of the Colony. 12 1936 Chicago: [Field Museum of Natural History], 1936. url p. 400.
- Woods of northeastern Peru, by Llewelyn Williams. 15 1936 Chicago, 1936. url p. 558, p. 561.
- Wrightia. 7 1981-1984 Richardson, Tex. [etc.]University of Texas at Dallas. url p. 169.
- Holmes, W. C. 1996. A proposed sectional classification for Mikania (Eupatorieae). In: D. J. N. Hind et al., eds. 1996. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew 1994. 2 vols. Kew. Vol. 1, pp. 621-626.
- Holmes, W. C. 1981. Mikania (Compositae) of the United States. Sida 9: 147-158.
- Holmes, W. C. 1993. The Genus Mikania (Compositae: Eupatorieae) in the Greater Antilles. Fort Worth. [Sida Bot. Misc. 9.]
- Robinson, B. L. 1934. Mikania scandens and its near relatives. Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 55-71.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 25, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- SysTax, EMBRAPA
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Utrecht University branch
- SysTax, SysTax
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657631
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-7166
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13748689
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:233035-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316383
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36046
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST6F030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MIMI5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 12846
- Walter C. Holmes "Mikania". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 459, 545, 546. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 386.500 meters (1,268.045 feet), Standard Deviation = 955.020 based on 922 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]