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Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in Assamese:
Common Names in Burmese:
Gungen, Kenga, ကံ့ကော်ပန်း
Common Names in English:
Ceylon Ironwood, Cobra´s Saffron, Cobra's Saffron, Cobras Saffron, Gau-Gau, Indian Rose Chestnut, Indian Rose-Chestnut, Iron-Wood Tree, Ironwood, Mesua, Penaga Lili
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hindi:
Naghesar, Nahar, नाग केसर
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Italian:
Croco Di Cobra
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Kannada:
Common Names in Malay:
Nagasari (Java), Penaga
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Marathi (Marāṭhī):
Common Names in Nepalese:
Nagesvar Campa, Nagesvari, Nagkesar, Narisal, Potal, Ruk Keshar
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Champeryah, Nagakesara, Nagakeshara, Nagkesar, Nagkeshara, Nagkeshwar, Nagpushpa
Common Names in Sinhala, Sinhalese:
Common Names in Tagalog:
Common Names in Tamil:
Charu-Nagapu, Nagappu, Sirunagappoo, Veillutta Champakam, நாகமரம்
Common Names in Telugu:
Kesaramu, Nagashappu, నాగకేసరి
Common Names in Thai:
Bunnak, Ka Ko (Karen), Kam Ko (Shan), Saraphi Doi (Chiang Mai), บุนนาค (พืช)
, or sometimes herbs containing resin or oil
spaces or canals and sometimes black or red glands
containing hypericin or pseudohypericin. Leaves simple
, entire or rarely gland-fringed, opposite or sometimes whorled
, nearly always estipulate. Flowers bisexual
, regular, hypogynous, solitary or in cymes or thyrses
; bracteoles often inserted
calyx and then not always easily distinguishable from sepals. Sepals (2-) 4 or 5(or 6), imbricate or decussate or rarely wholly united
in bud, inner ones sometimes petaloid
. Petals [3 or]4 or 5[or 6], free
, imbricate or contorted in bud. Stamens many to rarely few (9), in [3 or]4 or 5 bundles (fascicles) that are free and antipetalous
or variously connate
, with filaments
variously united or apparently free and then sometimes sterile
(staminodes) ; anther
. Staminode bundles (fasciclodes) 3-5, free and antisepalous
or variously connate or absent. Ovary superior, with 2-5(-12) connate carpels, 1-12-loculed, with axile
or basal placentation
; ovules 1 to many on each placenta, erect
to pendulous; styles 1-5[-12], free or Â± united or absent; stigmas 1-12, punctiform
to peltate or, when sessile, radiate
, surface papillate
. Fruit a septicidal
or septifragal, rarely loculicidal, capsule, berry, or drupe; seeds 1 to many, without or almost without endosperm [sometimes arillate
About 40 genera and 1200 species: mainly in tropical regions , except Hypericum and Triadenum, which are both mainly temperate in distribution; eight genera (one endemic) and 95 species (48 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
The Clusiaceae are a rather economically important family . Many species, such as Mesua ferrea and Garcinia paucinervis, have hard wood . Numerous species in Calophyllum, Clusia Linnaeus, and Garcinia produce valuable commercial resin or gum. Gamboge is produced from Garcinia morella Desrousseaux and other species. Garcinia mangostana and Mammea americana Linnaeus produce well-known edible fruits. Other species, such as Calophyllum inophyllum and Garcinia indica Choisy, have oily seeds. Hypericum is important in horticulture and medicine.
. Apical bud abortive
; axillary buds with scales
. Leaves opposite, petiolate
, leathery, usually with inconspicuous, translucent
; secondary veins many, slender; tertiary veins scalariform, not prominent
. Flowers bisexual
, homostylous, solitary, axillary
[or in axillary thyrses]. Sepals 4[or 5], imbricate. Petals 4[or 5], imbricate. Stamens many, not obviously fascicled, in continuous ring
, slender; anthers
; fasciclodes absent. Ovary 2-loculed, with 2 erect ovules per locule; styles united
; stigma peltate. Capsule subwoody, septifragal; septae persistent
. Seeds 1-4, without appendage
; embryo with broad fleshy
About five species: India and Sri Lanka to peninsular Malaysia, possibly Java, and China; one species (introduced ) in China.
Species Mesua ferrea
Trees evergreen , 20-30 m tall. Trunk upright, buttressed at base ; crown conic. Bark dark gray-brown, thin, fissured , lamellate , exuding aromatic white resin when wounded. Leaves always pendulous; petiole 5-8 mm; leaf blade reddish yellow when young, becoming dark green, abaxially usually glaucous, adaxially dark green and somewhat lucid, lanceolate or narrowly ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, (4-) 6-10(-12) × (1-) 2-4 cm, leathery; secondary veins numerous , obliquely parallel, slender and indistinct; tertiary veins and veinlets reticulate , ± visible under hand lens , base cuneate, apex acuminate or long acuminate to caudate . Pedicel 3-5 mm. Flowers bisexual , solitary, axillary , 5-8.5 cm in diam. Sepals (outer 2 slightly larger than inner 2) orbicular , convex , margin membranous and sometimes white ciliate . Petals white, obovate-cuneate, 3-3.5 cm. Stamens with filaments filiform , 1.5-2 cm; anthers golden-yellow, oblong . Ovary conic, ca. 1.5 cm; style 1-1.5 cm; stigma oblique . Fruit broadly ovoid or laterally depressed globose , ca. 3 × 2.5 cm, dry, longitudinally rugose , with stoutly pointed style at apex, usually dehiscent by 2 valves , with accrescent woody sepals and many persistent filaments at base; stalk robust , 0.8-1.2 cm. Seeds 1-4, ± irregular in shape ; coat brown, fragile. Fl. Mar-May, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 32. [source]
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: over 40' tall.
Usually cultivated, escaped and locally naturalized in SW Yunnan (Gengma: Mengding); 500-600 m. .
Culture: Space 20-30' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Order: Hypericales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Theanae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Subclass: Dilleniidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Calophyllum nagassarium N. L. Burman • Mesua nagassarium (N. L. Burman) Kostermans.
: L. Publication
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:515. 1753
Name verified on 20-Feb-1987 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 05-Nov-1999
Members of the genus Mesua
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3458110
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:428832-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 24194
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 428832-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 606771
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