Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Common Iceplant, Crystalline Ice Plant, Crystalline Iceplant, Ice Plant, Iceplant
Common Names in French:
Ficoïde Cristalline, Ficoïde Glaciale
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Erba Cristallina, Erba Ghiacciola
Common Names in Latin:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Mezembriantemum Chrustal'nyj, мезембриантемум цхрустальный
Common Names in Spanish:
Barrilla De Canarias, Escarcha, Escarchada, Escarchosa
, usually short-lived, succulent, usually conspicuously papillate
. Roots fibrous
. Stems prostrate
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, sessile or petiolate
; stipules absent; blade
reddish with age, flat or terete
. Inflorescences terminal
, flowers solitary or in cymes; bracts absent or 1-2, sessile or pedicellate
. Flowers showy, 4-10[-20] mm diam., tubular
; calyx lobes
(4-) 5, 2 often leaflike; petals (including petaloid
staminodia) 20-40[-150], distinct
into short tube
, white, pink, or yellowish, linear
5; stamens 30[-120]; pistil (4-) 5-carpellate; ovary half-inferior, (4-) 5-loculed, convex
; placentation axile
; stigmas (4-) 5, erect
. Fruits capsules, persistent
(4-) 5, with expanding interior keels when moistened, forming capsule lids when dried, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 100-200, black or dark [light] reddish brown [ochre
or whitish], compressed
], often with 1 straight edge
, 1 mm, smooth
to rough with minute tubercles
; arils absent.
Species 74: introduced ; s, w Africa; also introduced in Mexico, South America, Europe (Mediterranean), Asia, Atlantic Islands, Australia.
As described here, Mesembryanthemum is the narrowly delineated genus sensu H. M. L. Bolus (1928-1958, part 3, p. 164, fig. 25) .
The ability of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and M. nodiflorum to accumulate and release salt into the surrounding soil is one mechanism by which these species dominate disturbed areas (N. J. Vivrette and C. H. Muller 1977; N. J. Vivrette 1980) .
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 254 meters (833 feet).
Duration: Annual , Perennial
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
Cryophytum crystallinum (L.) N. E. Br. • Gasoul crystallinum (L.) Rothm.
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 480 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Mesembryanthemum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A dictionary of modern gardening / by George William Johnson. .. with one hundred and eighty wood cuts. Edited, with numerous additions, by David Landreth. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 39.
- A dictionary of modern gardening. Philadelphia, Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 323, p. 39.
- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 462, p. 462.
- A general index of the agricultural reports of the Patent Office, for twenty-five years, from 1837 to 1861; and of the Department of Agriculture, for fifteen years, from 1862 to 1876. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1879. url p. 10.
- A glossary of botanic terms, with their derivation and accent. London, Duckworth, 1905. url p. 131.
- A guide to floriculture; containing instructions to the young florist, for the management of the most popular flowers of the day. By T. Winter. Cincinnati, Derby, Bradley & co., 1847. url p. 153.
- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 421.
- A manual of botany: including the structure, functions, classification, properties and uses of plants. London, John Churchill, 1861. url p. 544.
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, by L.H. Pammel Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch press, 1911. url p. 424.
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L.H. Pammel. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1910-1911. url p. 424.
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 77.
- A popular California flora, or, Manual of botany for beginners. With illustrated introductory lessons, especially adapted to the Pacific Coast. To which is added an Analytical key to west coast botany. Containing brief descripti San Francisco, The Whitaker & Ray Co., 1896. url p. 65.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 464.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 85.
- A systematic treatise on comparative physiology, introductory to the physiology of man / London: Published by John Churchill and Thos. Kaye, 1834. url p. 352.
- A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy, intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and as a handbook for food and drug analysts. London, Lippincott[c1907] url .
- A textbook of botany for colleges and universities. .. Cincinnati [etc]American book company[1910-11] url .
- Agricultural pamphlets. [1850-62] url , .
- Allan Hancock Pacific expeditions. [Reports] Los Angeles, University of Southern California Press. url p. 278, p. 327, p. 51.
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 929.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 929.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 233.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 118.
- An introduction to California plant life Berkeley: University of California Press, [c1974] url p. 74.
- An introduction to botany, by John Lindley. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1832. url p. 395, p. 535.
- An introduction to botany. By John Lindley. London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1848. url p. 398.
- An introduction to physiological & systematical botany. Philadelphia, A. Finley;1814. url p. 111.
- An introduction to the structure and reproduction of plants, by F. E. Fritch and E. J. Salisbury. London, G. Bell and sons ltd., 1920. url p. 436.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 67.
- Analytical class-book of botany, designed for academies and private students. In two parts: Part 1. Elements of vegetable structure and physiology. By Frances H. Green. Part 11. Systematic botany: illustrated by a compendious flora of the northern states. By Joseph W. Congdon. London, D. Appleton, 1855. url p. 143.
- Annuals & biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden, London, C. Scribner's sons url .
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 47 - 51 1980 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 5.
- Botany Cambridge, Mass., John Wilson and Son, 1880 url p. 251.
- Botany for high schools and colleges. New York: H. Holt, 1885. url .
- Botany. By W. H. Brewer, Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray. Boston, Little, Brown, 1880. url p. 251.
- Botany. Cambridge, Mass.Welch, Bigelow, University Press, 1876-80. url p. 251, p. 251.
- Botany. New York, Holt, 1889. url p. 520.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 275, p. 276.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 36.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 14.
- Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences. [S.l.: The Academy], 1884- url p. 223.
- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 2.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1900 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 347.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url , p. 130, p. 162, p. 92.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 256.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url , p. 2140.
- Catalogue of economic plants in the collection of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1891. url .
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 178.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 983.
- Catalogue of the African plants London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1896-1901. url .
- Class-book of botany: being outlines of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants: with a flora of the United States and Canada / by Alphonso Wood. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co.; 1874, c1869. url p. 265.
- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url p. 183.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 297, p. 65.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 1 1890-1895 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 24, p. 327, p. 382.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 1006, p. 1008, p. 697, p. 795.
- Cyclopedia of practical floriculture, edited by C. H. Turner. New York, T. MacCoun, 1884. url p. 397.
- Dictionary of arts, manufactures, and mines containing a clear exposition of their principles and practice by Robert Hunt, assisted by F.W. Rudler. London, Longmans, 1875-78. url p. 879.
- Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by David Brewster. .. with the assistance of gentlemen eminent in science and literature. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1830. url p. 302.
- Elements of botany: structural, physiological, systematical, and medical / by John Lindley. London: Printed for Taylor and Walton, 1841. url p. 131.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 143.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 38.
- Erythea. a journal of botany, West American and general. 1 1893 Berkeley, Calif., University of California, 1893-1922. url p. 59.
- Field, forest and garden botany: a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated / by Asa Gray. New York: American Book, c1895. url p. 199.
- Field, forest, and garden botany, a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the Mississippi, both wild and cultivated. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1869. url p. 157.
- Field, forest, and garden botany; a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated, by Asa Gray. .. Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company url p. 199.
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 126.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 126.
- Flora of Guatemala, by Paul C. Standley and J.A. Steyermark. 24 1946 Chicago, 1946- url p. 205.
- Florist's manual. .. [Boston]1833. url p. 65.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url .
- Gardening in Egypt: a handbook of gardening for Lower Egypt, by Walter Draper. .. London, L.U. Gill, 1895. url p. 76.
- General physiology, an outline of the science of life, translated and edited by Frederic S. Lee. London, MacMillan, 1899. url p. 279, p. 280.
- General physiology; an outline of the science of life, London, Macmillan and co., limited;1899. url .
- Gray's School and field book of botany: consisting of "Lessons in botany" and "Field, forest, and garden botany" bound in one volume. New York: American Book Company, [between 1895 and 1900]. url p. 199.
- Gray's school and field book of botany. Consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume. New York, American book company, 1901?, c1887 url p. 199.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 741.
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , .
- House plants / by Robert Van Tress. Chicago:Field Museum of Natural History, 1937. url p. 35.
- How to make a flower garden; a manual of practical information and suggestions. New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1903. url p. 336.
- Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art. systematically arranged by J.G. Heck. Translated from the German, with additions, and edited by Spencer F. Baird. .. illustrated by five hundred steel plates, containing upwards to twelve thousand en New York, R. Garrigue, 1851. url p. 151.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 39, p. 44.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 108, p. 90.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url p. 148, p. 274, p. 60.
- Lectures on plant physiology. Authorized English translation by R.J. Harvey Gibson. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907. url p. 19.
- Lectures on the elements of botany. Part I. Containing the descriptive anatomy of those organs, on which the growth and preservation of the vegetable depend. By Anthony Todd Thomson, F. L. S.. .. Vol. I. London, Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1822. url .
- Lessons in botany and vegetable physiology, illus. by. .. Isaac Sprague. To which is added a copious glossary, or dictionary of botanical terms. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1872 [c1868] url p. 157.
- Manual of gardening: a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use / New York: Macmillan Co., 1911. url .
- Manual of gardening; a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use, New York, The Macmillan company, 1910. url p. 252.
- Muscologia britannica containing the mosses of Great Britain and Ireland systematically arranged and described with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species / by William Jackson Hooker and Thomas Taylor. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1827. url p. 213.
- New book of flowers. By Joseph Breck. New York, O. Judd & company[c1866] url p. 285, p. 285.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 8 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 388, p. 416.
- Occasional papers - San Diego Society of Natural History. 1949 San Diego, The Society. url p. 48, p. 48.
- Oecology of plants: an introduction to the study of plant-communities / by Eug. Warming; assisted by Martin Vahl; prepared for publication in English by Percy Groom and Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. url p. 121.
- Oecology of plants; an introduction to the study of plant-communities, by Eug. Warming, assisted by Martin Vahl. Prepared for publication in English by Percy Groom and Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. url p. 121.
- Oliver, D. Flora of tropical Africa /by Daniel Oliver. .. assisted by other botanists. 2 1871 London: L. Reeve and co., 1868-1999. url p. 586.
- Outlines of botany: taken chiefly from Smith's Introduction. .. For the use of schools and students / by Dr. John Locke. .. Boston: Cummings and Hilliard for the author, 1819. url p. 14.
- Oxford gardens, based upon Daubeny's Popular guide to the physick garden of Oxford: with notes on the gardens of the colleges and on the University park, by R. T. Günther. Oxford: Parker & son; [etc., etc.], 1912. url p. 69.
- Pamphlets on forestry in California. [1900?- url p. 122.
- Photosynthesis and related processes, by Eugene I. Rabinowitch. .. New York, N.Y., Interscience Publishers, inc., 1945- url p. 263.
- Physiological plant anatomy, tr. by Montagu Drummond. London, MacMillan, 1914. url p. 116.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , p. 79.
- Plant geography, by George S. Boulger, F. L. S. London, J. M. Dent & Son, 1912. url p. 103.
- Plant-geography upon a physiological basis. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903. url p. 11, p. 612.
- Point Lobos Reseerve; State Park, California. Interpretation of a primitive landscape. Sacramento, [State Print. Off., 1954] url p. 90.
- Popular geography of plants; or, A botanical excursion round the world, by E.M.C.; ed. by Charles Daubeny. London, 1855. url p. 146.
- Preliminary catalog of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta, reported as growing spontaneously within one hundred miles of New York City. New York, 1888. url p. 80.
- Principles of scientific botany, or, Botany as an inductive science by Dr. J.M. Schleiden. .. translated by Edwin Lankester. .. London: Printed for Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849 url p. 69.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 187.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 428, p. 432, p. 535, p. 610, p. 642.
- Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Mathematical and physical sciences. Cambridge [etc.]Cambridge Philosophical Society. url p. 200.
- Proceedings. 3d ser.: Botany. San Francisco url p. 105.
- Settler's guide and farmer's handbook. .. Issued by direction of the Bureau of agriculture. Ed. by L. Lindley-Cowen. .. pt. 1. Perth, E.S. Wigg, 1897- url p. 565.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 209.
- Studies on the vegetation of the Transcaspian lowlands, by Ove Paulsen. Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 1912. url p. 163.
- The American flower garden / by Neltje Blanchan; planting lists by Leonard Barron; illustrated with one hundred full-page photographs. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1909. url , p. 250, p. 250, p. 363.
- The American home garden: being principles and rules for the culture of vegetables, fruits, flowers, and shrubbery / by Alexander Watson New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859 url p. 457.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url , p. 145, p. 145, p. 171, p. 171, p. 171, p. 36, p. 36, p. 39, p. 522, p. 522, p. 522, p. iv.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The British cyclopædia of natural history: combining a scientific classification of animals, plants, and minerals. .. By authors eminent in their particular department. Arranged and ed. by Charles F. Partington. London: Orr & Smith, 1835-37. url p. 839.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1824-36. url p. 98.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 301.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 164.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 164, p. 181, p. 204, p. 408, p. 445, p. 85.
- The Horticulturist and journal of rural art and rural taste. Albany, N.Y.: Luthur Tucker, 1846/1847-1875 url p. 35.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 388.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 9 1867 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 208, p. 226.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url p. 243.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 21 1933 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 401.
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 13.
- The biology of flowering plants, by Macgregor Skene. .. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1924. url p. 161.
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 147.
- The contemporary land mammals of Egypt (including Sinai) / Dale J. Osborn, Ibrahim Helmy. 5 1980 [Chicago]: Field Museum of Natural History, 1980. url p. 239.
- The ecology of Tijuana Estuary, California: a national estuarine research reserve / by Joy B. Zedler, Christopher S. Nordby and Barbara E. Kus. [Washington, D.C.: NOAA Office of Coastal Resource Management, Sanctuaries and Reserves Division], 1992. url p. 62.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url , .
- The families of flowering plants. Washington, D. C., The Plant World Co.[1900-02] url .
- The floral kingdom: its history, sentiment and poetry: A dictionary of more than three hundred plants, with the genera and families to which they belong, and the language of each illustrated with appropriate gems to poe Chicago: M. Warren, 1877, c1876. url .
- The flower garden, or monthly calendar of practical directions for the culture of flowers. By Martin Doyle [pseud.] New York, Moore & Payne, 1835. url p. 148.
- The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific Ocean. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1898-99. url p. 282.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 165, p. 4.
- The gardener's pocket manual / by F. F. Rockwell. . . New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1914 url p. 60.
- The language of flowers: or, Floral emblems of thoughts, feelings, and sentiments. .. London, G. Routledge and sons, 1869. url .
- The micrographic dictionary; a guide to the examination and investigation of the structure and nature of microscopic objects. London, John Van Voorst, 1856. url p. 759.
- The microscope and its revelations, by the late William B. Carpenter. .. Philadelphia, P. Blackiston's Sons and Co., 1901. url p. 714.
- The microscope and its revelations. New York, W. Wood, 1883. url p. 378.
- The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution: from the German of Anton Kerner von Marilaun. .. Tr. and ed. by F.W. Oliver. .. with the assistance of Marian Busk. .. and Mary F. Ewart. .. With about 2000 original woodcut illustrations and sixtee New YorkH. Holt and company[1895-96?] url p. 961.
- The naturalised flora of South Australia / by J.M. Black. Adelaide: J.M. Black, 1909. url p. 67.
- The origin and history of our garden vegetables, to which is added their dietetic values. London, Pub. for the Author by the Royal Horticultural Society, 1912. url p. 65.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1411, p. 2040, p. 2043.
- The universe, or, The wonders of creation. The infinitely great and the infinitely little. By F. A. Pouchet. .. Portland [Me.]: H. Hallett and company, 1883. url , , , p. 373, p. 373, p. 375, p. 375, p. 753.
- The universe: or, The infinitely great and the infinitely little. New York, C. Scribner, 1870. url .
- The vegetable garden; illustrations, descriptions, and culture of the garden vegetables of cold and temperate climates, by MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux, of Paris. English ed. pub. under the direction of W. Robinson. With an addendum by W. P. Thomson. New York, E.P. Dutton and company, 1920. url p. 345.
- The vegetable kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system / by John Lindley. London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846. url p. 526.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, LondonBradbury & Evans1853 url p. 526.
- The wonders of vegetation. Edited, with numerous additions, by Schele de Vere. .. With 61 illustrations. New York, Scribner, 1872. url p. 242.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 112, p. 151, p. 158, p. 237.
- Transactions and proceedings and report of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated). Adelaide: W.C. Rigby, 1904-1911. url p. 272.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated). Adelaide: W.C. Rigby, 1912-1937. url p. 632.
- Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Toronto: Canadian Institute. url p. 263.
- Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society. 6 1890 Cape Town, : The Society. url p. 36.
- Western flower guide, wild flowers of the Rockies and west to the Pacific, Garden City, Doubleday, Page & company, 1917. url p. 47.
- Window gardening. Devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants, for indoor use and parlor decoration. Ed. by Henry T. Williams. New York, H. T. Williams, 1878, c1871. url p. 108.
- Window gardening: devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants for indoor use and parlor decoration / edited by Henry T. Williams. New York: H.T. Williams, 1872. url p. 108.
- Zoe:a biological journal. 1 1890 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 137, p. 21, p. 24.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668156
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-503818
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13809090
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:362764-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 24132
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503818
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 362764-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAIZ0C010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GACR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40396
- Nancy J. Vivrette "Mesembryanthemum". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 76, 77, 84. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 466.680 based on 67,358 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]