Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Gray Oysterleaf, Northern Shorewort, Oyster Plant, Oysterleaf, Oysterplant, Sea Bluebells, Sea Bugloss, Sea Lungwort, Seaside Smooth-Gromwell
Common Names in French:
Pulmonaire De Virginie, Sanguine De Mer
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Russian:
, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, with thin rhizomes. Basal leaves
usually withering early, ovate
; stem leaves alternate. Cymes terminal
, several flowered, becoming racemelike, ebracteate
. Flowers pedicellate
. Calyx 5-cleft or 5-parted, shorter than corolla tube
lanceolate to ovate, not changing much in fruit. Corolla funnelform
, usually sky blue or blue; throat
folds or scalelike appendages
; lobes spreading
, ovate to oblong
or semiorbicular, apex obtuse
. Stamens inserted
between appendages or slightly below; filaments
oblong to ovate, longer
than filaments, exserted. Ovary 4-parted. Style filiform, exserted from corolla. Gynobase
, glabrous; adaxially sharp, sometimes nearly winged
on keel; abaxially convex
, wrinkled, tuberculate
, rarely narrowly winged along margin
; attachment scar
About 15 species: Asia, E and NW Europe, North America; six species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: light blue, medium blue, pink
Size: under 6" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 238 meters (782 feet).
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Mertensia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 36 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
M. alpina (Alpine Bluebells) · M. arizonica (Arizona Bluebells) · M. bakeri var. bakeri (Baker's Bluebells) · M. bella (Beautiful Bluebells) · M. brevistyla (Short-Style Bluebells) · M. campanulata (Bell-Flowered Bluebells) · M. ciliata (Mountain Bluebell) · M. ciliata (James ex Torr.) G.Don var. stomatechoides (Tall Fringe Bluebells) · M. ciliata var. ciliata (Tall Fringe Bluebells) · M. ciliata var. stomatechoides (Tall Fringed Bluebells) · M. drummondii (Drummond Bluebell) · M. franciscana (Franciscan Bluebell) · M. humilis (Rocky Mountain Bluebells) · M. lanceolata (Lanceleaf Bluebells) · M. lanceolata var. brachyloba (Prairie Bluebells) · M. lanceolata var. coriacea (Prairie Bluebells) · M. lanceolata var. lanceolata (Prairie Bluebells) · M. lanceolata var. secundorum (Prairie Bluebells) · M. longiflora (Long-Flower Bluebells) · M. macdougalii (Macdougal's Bluebells) · M. maritima (Gray Oysterleaf) · M. maritima asiatica (Oysterleaf) · M. maritima var. asiatica (Oysterleaf) · M. maritima var. maritima (Oysterleaf) · M. oblongifolia (Languid-Lady) · M. paniculata (Chiming Bells) · M. paniculata var. alaskana (Alaska Tall Bluebells) · M. paniculata var. borealis (Northern Bluebells) · M. paniculata var. eastwoodiae (Eastwood's Bluebells) · M. paniculata var. paniculata (Tall Bluebells) · M. platyphylla (Broad-Leaf Bluebells) · M. platyphylla var. platyphylla (Broadleaf Bluebells) · M. platyphylla var. subcordata (Beebalm) · M. pterocarpa var. yezoensis (Japanese Bluebells) · M. umbratilis (Shade Bluebells) · M. virginica (Lungwort Oysterleaf)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 11, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2654521
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-31661
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:118618-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 24111
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 31661
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBOR0N0F0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MEMA3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 50042
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- Standard Deviation = 423.800 based on 87,645 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]