Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
Herbs or shrubs
, often twining
, sometimes prostrate
. Leaves usually petiolate
, rarely sessile, margin
, or palmately or pedately lobed
. Flowers axillary
, solitary or in few- to many-flowered, variously branched cymose inflorescences; bracts usually small. Sepals variable in shape
, often convex
or outer 2 smaller, persistent
, often enlarged in fruit. Corolla often yellow or white, sometimes with a darker center, funnelform
, usually glabrous
, or midpetaline bands
, sometimes only at apex; limb entire or ± 5-angled. Stamens included
, often unequal; anthers
often spirally twisted; filaments
distally; pollen 3-12-colpate or polyrugate, not spiny
. Disc ringlike. Pistil included; ovary (imperfectly 2-) 4-loculed, 4-ovuled. Style 1, filiform; stigmas 2-globular. Capsule 1-4-loculed, usually 4-valved or ± irregularly dehiscing. Seeds 4 or fewer, glabrous or pubescent
especially at margin.
Approximately 80 species: tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America; 19 species in China.
The generic name Merremia was published as a nomen nudum by Dennstedt (Schlüssel Hortus Malab. 12, 23, 34. 1818). Several modern floras attribute the valid publication of the name to H. Hallier (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 581. 1893), but Endlicher (1841) actually validated the name.
Merremia is often confused with Ipomoea, which has pantoporate , spiny pollen, straight anthers and very few species with yellow corollas. It is also confused with Operculina, which consistently has a fruit with a circumscissile lid that detaches first, leaving a fragile endocarp that shatters irregularly. The distribution of hairs on the corolla is taxonomically important in Merremia; this is most easily discerned on mature flower buds.
Flowers: Flower Color: pale yellow, yellow
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -86 meters (-284 feet).
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Solanales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Convolvulus Gemellus • Convolvulus gemellus Burm. F. • Ipomoea Gemella • Ipomoea gemella (Burm. F.) Roth
Members of the genus Merremia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
M. aegyptia (Hairy Merremia) · M. aurea (Yellow Morning Glory) · M. bipinnatipartita (Merremia) · M. cissoides (Roadside Woodrose) · M. discoidesperma (Crucifixion Bean) · M. dissecta (Alamo Vine) · M. gangetica (Kidney Leaf Morning Glory) · M. hederacea (Ivy Woodrose) · M. peltata (Merremia) · M. quinquefolia (Batatilla Blanca) · M. sibirica (Merremia) · M. tuberosa (Hawaiian Woodrose) · M. umbellata (Aguinaldo Amarillo)
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- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 508, p. 508.
- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 204.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 360.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url , p. 508.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1911 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 424.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 200, p. 552.
- Contributions to the flora of Siam [Aberdeen]Printed for the University1912- url p. 141.
- Contributions to the flora of Siam. .. / by William Grant Craib. .. [Aberdeen]: Printed for the University of Aberdeen, 1912- url p. 141.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 441, p. 442.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 255.
- The Philippine journal of science. 1 Suppl. 1906 Manila. url p. 120, p. 132, p. 374, p. 505, p. 509, p. 513, p. 516, p. 556.
- Fang Rhui-cheng & Huang Shu-hua in Wu Cheng-yih, ed. 1979. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(1): 1-153.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- GBIF-Sweden: Internation Botanical Collections (S)
- Harvard University Herbaria
- National Herbarium of New South Wales: Plants of Papua New Guinea
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility: Magnoliophyta
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5879721
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:125666-3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 990043
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Merremia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 291. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 462.120 based on 39 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]