, from erect
bulbs with short, vertical
, brown, stiff; roots
. Stems erect, simple
, leafy, hollow, basally thickened. Leaves basal, simple, reduced upwards, bases
, rarely plicate
, basally canaliculate
, apex tapered to acute; sheaths
. Inflorescences terminal
, compound-racemose to open-paniculate, flexible
, axes floccose
; bracts clasping
, linear to subulate
. Flowers of distal racemes
, progressively smaller distally, proximal
; tepals persistent, 6, spreading
to weakly connate
basally, slightly adnate
to ovary base, petaloid
, gradually to abruptly narrowed into claws
or claws absent, subequal
entire or undulate
, apex acute to obtuse
; perigonal nectaries obscure
to very prominent
, 2 per tepal, adaxially basal on either side of midvein
; stamens 6, adnate to tepal bases; filaments
strongly incurving; anthers
, 1-locular, cordate-reniform; pollen sacs
, dehiscence apical/valvate; ovary superior to partly inferior, nearly distinct, 3-locular; sepal nectaries absent; styles persistent, 3, spreading to recurved, turning inwards with age, distinct; stigmas minute; pedicel pubescent
. Fruits capsular
, deeply 3-lobed, dehiscence septicidal, then adaxially loculicidal; styles persistent, 3, beaklike. Seeds pale
yellow to tan, broadly winged
, flat, elliptic to lanceolate. x
Species 4: e North America.
Melanthium, often wholly or partly included in the closely related Veratrum (J. D. Ambrose 1975, 1980; S. M. Kupchan et al. 1961; J. H. Zimmerman 1958; W. B . Zomlefer 1997b; W. B. Zomlefer et al. 2001), is treated here as distinct (N. L. Bodkin 1978; B. Mathew 1989; M. N. Tamura 1998; S. Fuse and M. N. Tamura 2000). The eastern North American species of Melanthium differ from Veratrum primarily in their open inflorescences, which appear delicate and flexible; glabrous leaves; clawed tepals with two distinct, nonmarginal glands on either side of the midrib ; and incurving, fugacious stamens adnate to the tepals (N. L. Bodkin 1978).
Resolution of the problematical Melanthium-Veratrum species series will require full molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the group, especially of the narrow-leaved Asian Veratrum, several of which approximate Melanthium, such as V. mengtzeanum Loesener, V. micranthum Wang & Tang , V. stenophyllum Diels , and V. taliense Loesener f. (B. Mathew 1989). In eastern North America, an ecological replacement gradient occurs within the genus. Melanthium virginicum occurs mostly in wet habitats at lower elevations , while the Appalachian M. latifolium and the Ozark M. woodii commonly grow on mesic slopes , and M. parviflorum is most frequently found on or near mountain crests . Species of Melanthium should be considered poisonous, since complex alkaloids derived from steroidal precursors, similar to those in Veratrum, are present (S. M. Kupchan et al. 1961; R. Hegnauer 1962+, vol. 2; R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1985).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Liliales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L.f. Publication : Suppl. Pl. 213 1782 [1781 publ. Apr 1782]
Members of the genus Melanthium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Loudon, J. C. Loudon's Hortus britannicus.A catalogue of all the plants indigenous, cultivated in, or introduced to Britain. Part I. The Linnaean arrangement... Part II. The Jussieuean arrangement... /Edited by J. C. Loudon. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1830. url p. 140.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 478.
- Sweet's Hortus britannicus: or a catalogue of plants cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain, arranged in natural orders / by Robert Sweet. London: J. Ridgway, 1826. url p. 428.
- The Cottage gardeners' dictionary: describing the plants, fruits, and vegetables desirable for the garden, and explaining the terms and operations employed in their cultivation; with an alphabetical list of synonymes / edited by George W. Johnson. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1863. url p. 844.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 478.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 17 1880 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 435.
- The bulb book; or, Bulbous and tuberous plants for the open air, stove, and greenhouse, containing particulars as to descriptions, culture, propagation, etc.. .. by John Weathers. London, J. Murray, 1911. url p. 454.
- Bodkin, N. L. 1978. A Revision of North American Melanthium L. (Liliaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland.
- Leinfellner, W. 1961. Zur Kenntnis des Monokotyledonen Perigons. III. Die Perigonblatter einiger weiterer Melanthioideen (Melanthium, Zygadenus, Anticlea, Toxicoscordion, Veratrum und Kreysigia). Osterr. Bot. Z. 108: 108210.
- Zimmerman, J. H. 1958. A Monograph of Veratrum. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 12, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10710075
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15609064
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:538212-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 538212-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1332766