- Maranta arundinacea, cultivated for its starch-storing rhizome, is the mostly widely field-grown species of all the Marantaceae. In the early 1800s, it was commercially cultivated in Georgia and South Carolina (W. J. Titford 1812). This species is often referred to as St . Vincent arrowroot, after St. Vincent Island, West Indies, which is the major site of commercial production of the starch . The name arrowroot derives from its medicinal use as a poultice to remove arrow poison from wounds. The starch has also been used internally against ingested poison (R. Bentley and H. Trimen [1875--]1880, vol. 4, p. 265). Because the starch is so readily digested, it has been fed to infants, invalids , and those allergic to wheat. The cultivar 'Variegata,' with white and green variegated leaves, is often grown as an ornamental . [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Arrow-Root, Arrowroot, Bermuda Arrowroot, Maranta, Stvincent Arrowroot, West Indian Arrowroot
Common Names in French:
Arrowroot Des Antilles, Dictame (Antilles), Herbe Aux Flèches, Maranta Arundinacée
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hindi:
Tihhor, Tikhor, Tikkor, िटहुर
Common Names in Japanese:
Kuzu-Ukon, Kuzuukon, Maranta
Common Names in Malay:
Garut, Ubi Bemban, Ubi Garut, Yaitu Garut (Indonesia)
Common Names in Portuguese:
Agutiguepa, Agutiguepe, Araruta (Brazil), Araruta-Caixulta, Araruta-Comum, Araruta-Especial, Araruta-Gigante, Araruta-Palmeira, Araruta-Raiz-Redonda, Araruta-Ramosa, Aru-Aru
Common Names in Russian:
Maranta Trostnikovaia Maranty Trostnikovoi
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Common Names in Spanish:
Ararú, Araruta, Arrarú, Arrorúz, Arrorruz, Arrurruz, Arruruz, Caña Flecha, Chuchute Tamalera, Cuba, Guape, Guapo (Venezuela), Guate, Jamachipeke (Bolivia), Jamaichepeque, Juá-Juá (Bolivia, Juájuá, Maranta, Puerto Rico), Rizoma De Maranta, Sagú (Costa Rica, Sagú De San Vicente (Cuba), Saguero, Shimipampana (Peru), Shimipampana Blanco, Shimipampana Negro, Silú, Sucu, Sulú, Tacea, Tamalera (Guatemala), Tubérculo De Maranta, Uruguay), Yerén, Yuquilla
Common Names in Tamil:
Aruruttukkilangu, Kukai Niru
stems present or absent. Leaves distichous, usually large; petiole
, apex with a swollen pulvinus; leaf blade
pinnately veined, lateral
veins parallel, slightly S-shaped. Inflorescences terminal
, borne on leafy shoots
or occasionally on separate, leafless shoots from rhizomes, compound
, headlike, spicate
, or diffuse
and much branched, bracteate
; bracts each subtending
a pair of flowers or a cincinus of paired
flowers. Flowers bisexual
, paired or rarely borne singly. Sepals 3, free
. Corolla lobes
3, often slightly unequal, basally connate
into a tube
. Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with 1 or 2 petaloid
staminodes, rarely absent; inner whorl with 1 hooded
) staminode enclosing terminal portion of pistil at anthesis
and bearing a lateral appendage (trigger
), 1 thickened and fleshy
) staminode, and 1 fertile
stamen narrowly petaloid laterally; anther
1-loculed. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed, 1--3 locules fertile; ovules 1 per locule. Style cylindric
to inside of corolla and staminode tube, free portion curved
after explosive forward movement (tripping) when released Seeds 1--3, hard, usually arillate
.from hooded staminode; stigma scoop-shaped or blunted and 3-cleft. Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, rarely indehiscent or berrylike.
Thirty-one genera and ca. 525 species: pantropical but ca. 80% in America, absent from Australia; four genera (one introduced ) and eight species (two endemic, one introduced) in China.
, or upright, usually dying back to rhizome during dry season
, 0.1--1.5(--1.8) m.
Rhizomes occasionally swollen, storing starch
. Stems branched or unbranched with basal and cauline leaves to highly branched above elongate
, cane-like stem (internode) with few or no basal leaves
. Leaves homotropic [rarely antitropic]; sheath
, not spongy
. Inflorescences usually 2--several per shoot
, spikel-like, unbranched; bracts persistent
flower pairs, herbaceous; prophylls keeled
, membranous; secondary bracts absent; bracteoles usually absent. Flowers self-fertilizing [or outcrossing], corolla white, staminodes white [purple]; sepals persistent in fruit, more than 5 mm, herbaceous; corolla tube
[4--]12--14 mm, corolla lobes
unequal; outer staminodes 2, petal-like; callose
staminode apex usually petal-like; cucullate
staminode with 1 appendage
], flaplike [fingerlike]; stylar
movement in single plane
; style unappendaged. Fruits capsules, 1-seeded, obliquely ellipsoid
, pericarp relatively thin, dehiscent
. Seeds brown, ellipsoid, rugose
canal 1, distally branched; aril conspicuous
Species 32: tropical and subtropical regions, s Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America (to n Argentina).
Species Maranta arundinacea
Plants erect , 0.3--1.3 m. Rhizomes tuberous , thickened. Stem often branched above. Leaves: basal 4--8, cauline 1--8; sheath auriculate , 4.5--31 cm, margins and apex densely pilose to nearly glabrous ; petiole often absent in cauline leaves, 3.5--20 cm; pulvinus 0.2--1.8 cm, adaxially tomentose ; blade ovate , 3.5--35 ´ 3--11 cm, basal leaves largest, abaxially glabrous to minutely pilose, adaxially sparsely minutely pilose. Inflorescences: bracts 1--2(--3), 2.4--6 cm; common pedicel of flower pair 2.3--5.5 cm. Flowers: sepals 10--17 mm; corolla white, corolla tube curved , 12--14 mm; staminodes white; ovary tan, densely pubescent , rarely glabrous or nearly glabrous. Fruits green or tinged red-brown, 8 ´ 4--5 mm. 2n = 18, 2n = 48. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, May, June, July, November, December.
Hammocks and moist soil; 0--10 m ; introduced .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Grisebach, 1854
- Family: Marantaceae () - R. Br., in Flinders, 1814, nom. cons. - Prayer-Plant Family
- Order: Zingiberales () - Grisebach, 1854
- Superorder: Zingiberanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Maranta sylvatica Roscoe Ex Smith
Publishing author : Billb. ex Beurl. Publication : Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 1854 (1856) 108
Members of the genus Maranta
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 9 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
M. allouia (Llerenes) · M. arundinacea (Arrow-Root) · M. arundinacea 'Variegata' (Arrowroot) · M. bicolor (Prayer Plant) · M. galanga (Greater Galangal) · M. leuconeura (Prayer Plant) · M. leuconeura var. erythroneura (Herringbone Plant) · M. leuconeura var. kerchoveana (Rabbit's Foot) · M. zebrina (Zebra Plant)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668051
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-253261
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13760218
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:797248-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 23393
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503694
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 797248-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMMAR02010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MAAR3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 49160
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