, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves alternate, simple
; stipules early or tardily deciduous, at first surrounding stem, adnate
side of petiole
in Magnolia grandiflora ), often ochreate, leaving persistent
around node. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, unlobed (or evenly 2-10-lobed in Liriodendron ), margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, solitary flowers (often paired
in Magnolia ashei ), pedunculate
bracts 2 (Magnolia ) or 1 (Liriodendron ) . Flowers: perianth hypogynous, segments imbricate; tepals deciduous, 6-18, in 3 or more whorls of 3, ± similar or outer tepals sepaloid
, inner tepals petaloid
; stamens numerous
, hypogynous, free, spirally arranged
very short to 1/2 length
; anthers introrse
, or extrorse
, longitudinally dehiscent
with distal appendage
; pistils numerous, superior, spirally arranged on elongate
receptacle (torus), stalked
or sessile, free or ±concrescent, 1-locular; placentation marginal
, placenta 1; ovules 1-2; style 1, short and recurved (Magnolia ) or large and winglike (Liriodendron ) ; stigma 1, terminal or terminal decurrent (Magnolia ) or recurved (Liriodendron ) . Fruits conelike syncarps consisting of aggregates of coalescent
, woody follicles (follicetums, as in Magnolia ) or apocarps
consisting of aggregates of indehiscent samaras (samaracetums, as in Liriodendron ) . Seeds 1-2 per pistil, arillate
, endosperm oily (Magnolia ), or without aril, adherent
to dry endocarp ( Liriodendron ) .
Genera ca. 6(-12), species ca. 220 (2 genera, 9 species in the flora ) : mostly in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Western Hemisphere.
Magnoliaceae are pollinated by beetles.
Herbarium material of Magnolia is usually incomplete and inadequate for critical study. Collections should include material of the stipules, spathaceous bracts, a full complement of stamens, and all of the perianth segments to facilitate identification of Magnolia species.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, red, white
Size: 20-30' tall.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Blume Publication : Fl. Javae 19-20(Magnoliaceae): 23 1829 [25 Nov 1829]
Members of the genus Manglietia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 10.
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- Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, mana London, Henry G. Bohn, 1854. url p. 173.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 287, p. 417, p. 446, p. 455, p. 464, p. 551.
- Hooker, J. D. & T. Thomson Flora indica: being a systematic account of the plants of British India, together with observations on the structure and affinities of their natural orders and genera /by J.D. Hooker and Thomas Thomson. 1855 London: W. Pamplin, 1855. url p. 189.
- Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis; A catalogue of the plants which have been cultivated in the Hon. East India Company's botanical garden, Calcutta, and in the Serampore botanical garden. By the late J. O. Voigt, printed under the superintendence of W. Griffith. Calcutta, Bishop's College Press, 1845. url p. 13.
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- The North American sylva; or, A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia. .. / To which is added a description of the most useful of the European forest trees. .. Translated from the French of F. Andrew Michaux. .. With notes by J. Jay Smith. .. Philadelphia: Rice Rutter & co., 1865. url p. 6.
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- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 125, p. 146.
- World Plant Conservation Bibliography WCMC, Royal Botanic Gardens url p. 630.
- Canright, J. E. 1960. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. III. Carpels. Amer. J. Bot. 47(2): 145-155.
- Demuth, P. and F. S. Santamour Jr. 1978. Carotenoid flower pigments in Liriodendron and Magnolia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105(1): 65-66.
- Hardin, J. W. and K. A. Jones. 1989. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, X. Magnoliaceae of the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116(2): 164-173.
- Nooteboom, J. P. 1985. Notes on Magnoliaceae. Blumea 31: 65-121.
- Praglowski, J. 1974. Magnoliaceae Juss. Taxonomy by J. E. Dandy. World Pollen Spore Fl. 3: 1-48.
- Sargent, C. S. 1890-1902. The Silva of North America.... 14 vols. Boston and New York. Vol. 1, pp. 1-20.
- Spongberg, S. A. 1976. Magnoliaceae hardy in temperate North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 250-312.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.