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Magnolia virginiana

(Dwarf Sweet Bay Magnolia)

Overview

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Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in English:

Dwarf Sweet Bay Magnolia, Laurel Magnolia, Swamp Bay, Swamp Magnolia, Swamp-Bay, Swamp-Laurel, Sweet Bay, Sweet Bay Magnolia, Sweet Magnolia, Sweet-Bay, Sweetbay, Sweetbay Magnolia

Common Names in French:

Laurier Doux

Description

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Family Magnoliaceae

Trees or shrubs , deciduous or evergreen , aromatic . Pith homogeneous or diaphragmed . Leaves alternate, simple , petiolate ; stipules early or tardily deciduous, at first surrounding stem, adnate on adaxial side of petiole (free in Magnolia grandiflora ), often ochreate, leaving persistent annular scar around node. Leaf blade pinnately veined, unlobed (or evenly 2-10-lobed in Liriodendron ), margins entire. Inflorescences terminal , solitary flowers (often paired in Magnolia ashei ), pedunculate ; spathaceous bracts 2 (Magnolia ) or 1 (Liriodendron ) . Flowers: perianth hypogynous, segments imbricate; tepals deciduous, 6-18, in 3 or more whorls of 3, ± similar or outer tepals sepaloid , inner tepals petaloid ; stamens numerous , hypogynous, free, spirally arranged ; filaments very short to 1/2 length of anthers ; anthers introrse , latrorse , or extrorse , longitudinally dehiscent ; connective with distal appendage ; pistils numerous, superior, spirally arranged on elongate receptacle (torus), stalked or sessile, free or ±concrescent, 1-locular; placentation marginal , placenta 1; ovules 1-2; style 1, short and recurved (Magnolia ) or large and winglike (Liriodendron ) ; stigma 1, terminal or terminal decurrent (Magnolia ) or recurved (Liriodendron ) . Fruits conelike syncarps consisting of aggregates of coalescent , woody follicles (follicetums, as in Magnolia ) or apocarps consisting of aggregates of indehiscent samaras (samaracetums, as in Liriodendron ) . Seeds 1-2 per pistil, arillate , endosperm oily (Magnolia ), or without aril, adherent to dry endocarp ( Liriodendron ) .

Genera ca. 6(-12), species ca. 220 (2 genera, 9 species in the flora ) : mostly in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Western Hemisphere.

Magnoliaceae are pollinated by beetles.

Herbarium material of Magnolia is usually incomplete and inadequate for critical study. Collections should include material of the stipules, spathaceous bracts, a full complement of stamens, and all of the perianth segments to facilitate identification of Magnolia species.[1]

Genus Magnolia

Trees or shrubs , deciduous or evergreen . Pith homogeneous or diaphragmed . Leaves distinctly alternate or sometimes crowded in terminal whorl-like clusters ; stipules early deciduous, free or adnate to and proximal on petiole . Leaf blade : base deeply cordate or auriculate or cuneate to abruptly narrowed or rounded , margins entire, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white or green to glaucous, pubescent or glabrous . Flowers protogynous, appearing with or before leaves; tepals 9-15, petaloid , usually spreading , creamy white, rarely greenish, yellow, or orange-yellow, outermost tepals sepaloid , sometimes strongly reflexed , greenish; stamens on elongate torus, early deciduous; filaments white or purple, very short; anthers introrse or latrorse . Follicles persistent , coalescent , forming conelike aggregate, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds with red, pink, or orange oily aril, extruded from follicles and suspended by funiculi. x =19.

Species ca. 120: temperate and tropical regions , Western Hemisphere, Asia (Himalayas, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia) .[2]

Physical Description

Species Magnolia virginiana

Shrubs or small trees , evergreen to partly evergreen or deciduous, multitrunked to 10m, or single-trunked to 28 m. Bark dark gray, smooth . Pith diaphragmed . Twigs and foliar buds silky-pubescent, sometimes glabrous . Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal whorl-like clusters ; stipules 3-5.5(-6) × 0.3-0.5 cm, abaxially brownish puberulent , red-glandular. Leaf blade oblong to elliptic , ovate to obovate , 6-22 × 2.6-7 cm, somewhat leathery, base cuneate, apex obtuse to acute or rounded to somewhat acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white to glaucous, glabrous or densely silky-pubescent, adaxially dull green to lustrous . Flowers fragrant, 5-8 cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, outer bract abaxially silky-pubescent, inner bract nearly glabrous, red-glandular; tepals creamy white, red-glandular, outermost segments reflexed , greenish; stamens (32-) 63-90(-102), 5.5-11 mm; filaments white; pistils (9-) 19-33(-50). Follicetums ellipsoid to nearly globose , 2-5.5 × 1.5-3 cm; follicles short-beaked, glabrous. Seeds somewhat globose to lenticular , 5 mm, aril red. 2 n =38. [source]

The most widely distributed species of Magnolia in the flora , M. virginiana occurs in two growth forms : deciduous and often multitrunked northward, and typically single-trunked and evergreen in the southern range . Where these forms overlap geographically in North Carolina and adjacent areas, intergradation occurs, and the identification of these intergrades is difficult, if not impossible. It has been impossible to pinpoint their occurrence in the zone of overlap. Herbarium specimens cannot be trusted to resolve this dilemma. Both filiform and flagelliform trichomes occur on the leaves, but these are without taxonomic significance. Some investigators have treated these habital variants as geographic varieties or as subspecies , but infraspecific taxa are not recognized here. Without other defining characteristics and no clear geographic correlation , infraspecific taxa have little significance or taxonomic value in M. virginiana. A thorough field study is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this otherwise well-known plant. [source]

Magnolia virginiana is widely cultivated. It was the first magnolia known in Europe, dating from 1688 in England. A few cultivars of both the deciduous and evergreen forms are now grown in cultivation. Magnolia virginiana is a parent of several hybrids, including the first known magnolia hybrid, M .× thompsoniana (Loudon) C. de Vos (= M. virginiana × M. tripetala ), dating to 1808. Other hybrids include the so-called Freeman hybrids of M. grandiflora × M. virginiana and M. virginiana × M. hypoleuca with its cultivar 'Nimbus'. [source]

ID Features: Smooth, green bark or twigs. Silvery-white undersides of leaves.

Habit: A semi-evergreen multi-stemmed, loose and open small tree with a rounded to pyramidal or irregular outline and upright, spreading branching.

Flowers: Fragrant creamy flowers in June. • Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white • Flower Conspicuous: Lemon scented, saucer-shaped

Seeds: Fruit: 2' long aggregate fruit. Changes from green to red when mature . Orang-red seeds are visible through slits in mature fruits.

Foliage: Semi-evergreen . • Summer foliage: Leaves are evergreen in the southeastern United States. Leaves are semi-evergreen to deciduous in the northeastern United States. (zone 5 and 6). Leaves are 5" long; alternate arrangement . Smooth , almost wary, bright green upper surface. Undersides of leaves are white and look frosted. Young twigs are green and smooth. • Fall foliage: Typically not showy. A mix of yellow, brown and green. Non-uniform color due to semi-evergreen nature.

Size/Age/Growth

Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: to 30' tall.

Landscaping

Landscape Uses: As a specimen tree or large shrub . Useful for flower fragrance. Patio plant. Naturalistic areas. Wet soils. • Liabilities: Chlorosis on high pH soils. Subject to winter injury in zone 5. Does not always perform well in colder parts of its recommended use range . Does not bloom as heavily as other common-magnolias. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .

Habitat

Swamps , bays , low wet woods , savannahs; chiefly in coastal plain and lower piedmont; 0-540 m. [source]

Often found in swampy locations. Hardy to zone 5.

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 233 meters (0 to 764 feet).[3]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Growth

Culture: Tolerant of wet soils. Soil must be acidic. Full sun is best, but tolerant of partial shade. Avoid sites that are cold and windswept in winter.

Soil: Tolerates wet, poorly drained soil. Needs acid soil . • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial sun

Moisture: Water Requirements: Once established needs only occasional water.

Temperature: Heat Zones: High: 9 (>120 to 150 days) Low:1 (< 1 days) (map) • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Magnolia australis (Sarg.) Ashe • Magnolia australis var. parva (Ashe) Ashe • Magnolia burchelliana Steud. • Magnolia fragrans Raf. • Magnolia fragrans Salisb. • Magnolia glauca (L.) L. • Magnolia glauca var. argentea Dc. • Magnolia glauca var. latifolia Aiton • Magnolia glauca var. longifolia Aiton • Magnolia gordoniana Steud. • Magnolia latifolia Aiton Ex Dippel • Magnolia virginiana australis (Sarg.) E. Murray • Magnolia virginiana var. australis Sarg. • Magnolia virginiana var. glauca L. • Magnolia virginiana var. longifolia Aiton • Magnolia virginiana var. parva Ashe • Magnolia virginiana var. pumila Nutt.

Notes

Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 535 1753 [1 May 1753]

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Magnolia

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 213 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

M. acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. acuminata (L.) L. var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (Yellow Cucumbertree) · M. acuminata (L.) L. 'Yellow Bird' (Yellow Bird Cucumbertree Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Butterflies' (Butterflies Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Koban Dori' (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. ashei (Ashe Magnolia) · M. biondii (Biond Magnolia) · M. campbellii (Pink Tulip Tree) · M. cavaleriei (Michelia) · M. champaca (Champaca) · M. chapensis (Michelia) · M. coco (Cempaka Gondok) · M. compressa (Michelia) · M. dawsoniana (Magnolia) · M. dawsoniana 'Chyverton Red' (Magnolia) · M. dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. delavayi (Evergreen Chinese Magnolia) · M. denudata (Lilytree) · M. denudata 'Forrest's Pink' (Forrest's Pink Tulip Tree) · M. denudata 'Iolanthe' (Tulip Tree) · M. doltsopa (Chinese Magnolia) · M. ernestii (Michelia) · M. figo (Banana Magnolia) · M. floribunda (Magnolia) · M. fraseri (Fraser Magnolia) · M. fraseri var. fraseri (Fraser´s Magnolia) · M. grandiflora (Bull Bay) · M. grandiflora var. Alta (Alta Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Al's Golden' (Als Golden Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baby Doll' (Baby Doll Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baldwin' (Baldwin Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blackwell' (Blackwell Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blanchard' (Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bracken's Brown Beauty' (Bracken's Brown Beauty Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bronze Brown Beauty' (Bronze Brown Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Cairo' (Cairo Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Celestial' (Celestial Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Claudia Wannamaker' (Claudia Wannamaker Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Coppertop' (Coppertop Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'D.d. Blanchard' (D.d. Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Edith Bogue' (Edith Bogue Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Emory' (Emory Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Fairhope' (Fairhope Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gallosoniensis' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gloriosa' (Gloriosa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Goliath' (Goliath Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Greenback' (Greenback Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Green Giant' (Green Giant Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Hasse' (Hasse Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Howard Poole' (Howard Poole Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Paris' (Kay Paris Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Parris' (Kay Parris Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Little Gem' (Dwarf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Mainstreet' (Mainstreet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Majestic Beauty' (Majestic Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'MGTIG' (Greenback" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Millais' (Millais Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Monlia' (Majestic Beauty® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Montreaux' (Montreaux Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Ocean Wave' (Ocean Wave Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Orbit' (Orbit Southern Magnolia) · M. Grandiflora 'Overton' (Southern Magnolia Overton) · M. grandiflora 'Pioneer' (Pioneer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Robert Reich' (Robert Reich Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Russet' (Russet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Saint Mary' (Saint Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Samuel Sommer' (Samuel Sommer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Satin Leaf' (Satin Leaf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Smitty' (Smitty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Southern Charm' (Teddy Bear® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Spring Hill' (Spring Hill Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'St. Mary' (St. Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Sunset' (Sunset Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Symmes Select' (Symmes Select Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Teddy Bear' (Teddy Bear Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Timeless Beauty' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tmgh' (Alta" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tulsa' (Tulsa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Twentyfour Below' (Twentyfour Below Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Variegata' (Variegata Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Victoria' (Victoria Southern Magnolia) · M. insignis (Red Lotus Tree) · M. kobus (Japanese Magnolia) · M. lacei (White Michelia) · M. laevifolia (Michelia) · M. liliflora 'Nigra' (Nigra Magnolia) · M. liliifera (Egg Magnolia) · M. liliiflora (Lily Magnolia) · M. liliiflora 'Nigra' (Magnolia) · M. macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. macrophylla dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. macrophylla macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla var. ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. maudiae (Michelia) · M. montana (Mountain Magnolia) · M. nitida (Eastern Joy Lotustree) · M. obovata (Whitebark Magnolia) · M. officinalis (Medicinal Magnolia) · M. officinalis var. biloba (Chinese Magnolia)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Frederick G. Meyer "Magnoliaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Christopher H. Haufler, Michael D. Windham, Frank A. Lang, S. A. Whitmore "Magnolia". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Mean = 71.480 meters (234.514 feet), Standard Deviation = 64.810 based on 56 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-14