- This handsome tree is occasionally cultivated. A close relative, M. dealbata Zuccarini, occurs in Mexico. [source]
- The largest known tree of Magnolia macrophylla, 32m in height with a trunk diameter of 53 cm, is recorded from Daniel Boone National Forest , Tight Hollow, Kentucky (American Forestry Association 1994). [source]
- The Cherokee tribe used Magnolia macrophylla, mainly the bark , as an analgesic, antidiarrheal, gastrointestinal aid, respiratory aid, and toothache remedy (D.E. Moerman 1986). [source]
Common Names in English:
Bigleaf Magnolia, Big-Leaf Magnolia, Large-Leaf Cucumber-Tree, Large-Leaved Cucumber Tree, Umbrella-Tree
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves alternate, simple
; stipules early or tardily deciduous, at first surrounding stem, adnate
side of petiole
in Magnolia grandiflora ), often ochreate, leaving persistent
around node. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, unlobed (or evenly 2-10-lobed in Liriodendron ), margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, solitary flowers (often paired
in Magnolia ashei ), pedunculate
bracts 2 (Magnolia ) or 1 (Liriodendron ) . Flowers: perianth hypogynous, segments imbricate; tepals deciduous, 6-18, in 3 or more whorls of 3, ± similar or outer tepals sepaloid
, inner tepals petaloid
; stamens numerous
, hypogynous, free, spirally arranged
very short to 1/2 length
; anthers introrse
, or extrorse
, longitudinally dehiscent
with distal appendage
; pistils numerous, superior, spirally arranged on elongate
receptacle (torus), stalked
or sessile, free or ±concrescent, 1-locular; placentation marginal
, placenta 1; ovules 1-2; style 1, short and recurved (Magnolia ) or large and winglike (Liriodendron ) ; stigma 1, terminal or terminal decurrent (Magnolia ) or recurved (Liriodendron ) . Fruits conelike syncarps consisting of aggregates of coalescent
, woody follicles (follicetums, as in Magnolia ) or apocarps
consisting of aggregates of indehiscent samaras (samaracetums, as in Liriodendron ) . Seeds 1-2 per pistil, arillate
, endosperm oily (Magnolia ), or without aril, adherent
to dry endocarp ( Liriodendron ) .
Genera ca. 6(-12), species ca. 220 (2 genera, 9 species in the flora ) : mostly in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Western Hemisphere.
Magnoliaceae are pollinated by beetles.
Herbarium material of Magnolia is usually incomplete and inadequate for critical study. Collections should include material of the stipules, spathaceous bracts, a full complement of stamens, and all of the perianth segments to facilitate identification of Magnolia species.
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves distinctly alternate or sometimes crowded in terminal
; stipules early deciduous, free
to and proximal
. Leaf blade
deeply cordate or auriculate
or cuneate to abruptly narrowed or rounded
entire, apex obtuse
or acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white or green to glaucous, pubescent
. Flowers protogynous, appearing with or before leaves; tepals 9-15, petaloid
, usually spreading
, creamy white, rarely greenish, yellow, or orange-yellow, outermost tepals sepaloid
, sometimes strongly reflexed
, greenish; stamens on elongate
torus, early deciduous; filaments
white or purple, very short; anthers
. Follicles persistent
, forming conelike aggregate, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds with red, pink, or orange oily aril, extruded from follicles and suspended by funiculi. x
Species ca. 120: temperate and tropical regions , Western Hemisphere, Asia (Himalayas, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia) .
Species Magnolia macrophylla
, deciduous, single-trunked, to 15(-32) m.
Leaves crowded in terminal
; stipules (9-) 11-17
× 3-6.5 cm, abaxially pilose
. Leaf blade
to obovate-oblong, 50-110 × 15-30 cm, base
to deeply cordate or auriculate
, apex acute to short-acuminate or
; surfaces abaxially chalky white, sometimes pale
glaucous, pilose, adaxially deep green, glabrous
. Flowers solitary,
fragrant, 35-40(-50) cm across; spathaceous
bracts 2, outer bract
abaxially rusty gray, inner bract thinner, glabrous; tepals creamy
white, glandular, innermost whorl purple-blotched at base, outermost
segments strongly reflexed
, greenish; stamens (300-) 350-580, 12.5-24.5
white; pistils 50-80. Follicetums globose-ovoid, 5-8
× 5-7 cm; follicles short-beaked, distally appressed
Seeds ± ovoid
, 10-12 mm, pointed
, aril orange-red. 2 n =38.
The disposition of Magnolia macrophylla and its close relative M. ashei has been perplexing since M. ashei was described. Some investigators have treated them as geographic varieties or subspecies , and this has some questionable merit. In the foliar state M. macrophylla is hardly, if at all, distinguishable from M. ashei, but in other morphologic details of flower and fruit, they are readily distinguished. They also differ in the floral odors, which are distinct and chemically different (L.B. Thien et al. 197). Magnolia macrophylla and M. ashei are allopatric . Magnolia macrophylla is a much larger, usually single-trunked tree of the piedmont with a wider distribution, larger leaves, more stamens, larger stipules, and both filiform and flagelliform trichomes on the leaves. The follicetum is nearly globose-ovoid, with more pistils and larger seeds. Magnolia macrophylla produces the largest leaves and flowers of any species of the genus. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 20-30' tall.
Alluvial woods and sheltered valleys, piedmont; 150-300 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 634 meters (0 to 2,080 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Magnoliaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Magnolia Family
- Order: Magnoliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Magnolia michauxiana de Candolle • Magnolia pilosissima P. Parm.
Publishing author : Michx. Publication : Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 327 1803 [19 Mar 1803]
Members of the genus Magnolia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 213 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
M. acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. acuminata (L.) L. var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (Yellow Cucumbertree) · M. acuminata (L.) L. 'Yellow Bird' (Yellow Bird Cucumbertree Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Butterflies' (Butterflies Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Koban Dori' (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. ashei (Ashe Magnolia) · M. biondii (Biond Magnolia) · M. campbellii (Pink Tulip Tree) · M. cavaleriei (Michelia) · M. champaca (Champaca) · M. chapensis (Michelia) · M. coco (Cempaka Gondok) · M. compressa (Michelia) · M. dawsoniana (Magnolia) · M. dawsoniana 'Chyverton Red' (Magnolia) · M. dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. delavayi (Evergreen Chinese Magnolia) · M. denudata (Lilytree) · M. denudata 'Forrest's Pink' (Forrest's Pink Tulip Tree) · M. denudata 'Iolanthe' (Tulip Tree) · M. doltsopa (Chinese Magnolia) · M. ernestii (Michelia) · M. figo (Banana Magnolia) · M. floribunda (Magnolia) · M. fraseri (Fraser Magnolia) · M. fraseri var. fraseri (Fraser´s Magnolia) · M. grandiflora (Bull Bay) · M. grandiflora var. Alta (Alta Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Al's Golden' (Als Golden Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baby Doll' (Baby Doll Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baldwin' (Baldwin Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blackwell' (Blackwell Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blanchard' (Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bracken's Brown Beauty' (Bracken's Brown Beauty Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bronze Brown Beauty' (Bronze Brown Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Cairo' (Cairo Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Celestial' (Celestial Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Claudia Wannamaker' (Claudia Wannamaker Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Coppertop' (Coppertop Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'D.d. Blanchard' (D.d. Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Edith Bogue' (Edith Bogue Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Emory' (Emory Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Fairhope' (Fairhope Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gallosoniensis' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gloriosa' (Gloriosa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Goliath' (Goliath Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Greenback' (Greenback Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Green Giant' (Green Giant Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Hasse' (Hasse Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Howard Poole' (Howard Poole Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Paris' (Kay Paris Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Parris' (Kay Parris Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Little Gem' (Dwarf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Mainstreet' (Mainstreet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Majestic Beauty' (Majestic Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'MGTIG' (Greenback" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Millais' (Millais Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Monlia' (Majestic Beauty® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Montreaux' (Montreaux Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Ocean Wave' (Ocean Wave Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Orbit' (Orbit Southern Magnolia) · M. Grandiflora 'Overton' (Southern Magnolia Overton) · M. grandiflora 'Pioneer' (Pioneer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Robert Reich' (Robert Reich Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Russet' (Russet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Saint Mary' (Saint Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Samuel Sommer' (Samuel Sommer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Satin Leaf' (Satin Leaf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Smitty' (Smitty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Southern Charm' (Teddy Bear® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Spring Hill' (Spring Hill Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'St. Mary' (St. Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Sunset' (Sunset Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Symmes Select' (Symmes Select Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Teddy Bear' (Teddy Bear Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Timeless Beauty' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tmgh' (Alta" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tulsa' (Tulsa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Twentyfour Below' (Twentyfour Below Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Variegata' (Variegata Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Victoria' (Victoria Southern Magnolia) · M. insignis (Red Lotus Tree) · M. kobus (Japanese Magnolia) · M. lacei (White Michelia) · M. laevifolia (Michelia) · M. liliflora 'Nigra' (Nigra Magnolia) · M. liliifera (Egg Magnolia) · M. liliiflora (Lily Magnolia) · M. liliiflora 'Nigra' (Magnolia) · M. macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. macrophylla dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. macrophylla macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla var. ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. maudiae (Michelia) · M. montana (Mountain Magnolia) · M. nitida (Eastern Joy Lotustree) · M. obovata (Whitebark Magnolia) · M. officinalis (Medicinal Magnolia) · M. officinalis var. biloba (Chinese Magnolia)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645053
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-117698
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14245016
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:554766-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 23117
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18075
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 554766-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMAG02050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MAMA2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 48842
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- Mean = 198.100 meters (649.934 feet), Standard Deviation = 149.750 based on 149 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]