Tree , native to SE US and Texas, introduced into Hawaii early in the 19th century, first planted at Hanalei, Kauai.
- Southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ) is the state tree of both Louisiana and Mississippi. [source]
- The largest known tree of Magnolia grandiflora, 37.2m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.97m, is recorded from Smith County, Mississippi (American Forestry Association 1994). [source]
- The Choctaw and Koasati tribes used the bark of Magnolia grandiflora as dermatological and kidney aids (D.A. Moerman 1986). [source]
- State flower of Mississippi. Flowers are pickled and eaten in some parts of England.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Bull Bay, Bull-Bay, Magnolia, Southern Magnolia
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Japanese:
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves alternate, simple
; stipules early or tardily deciduous, at first surrounding stem, adnate
side of petiole
in Magnolia grandiflora ), often ochreate, leaving persistent
around node. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, unlobed (or evenly 2-10-lobed in Liriodendron ), margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, solitary flowers (often paired
in Magnolia ashei ), pedunculate
bracts 2 (Magnolia ) or 1 (Liriodendron ) . Flowers: perianth hypogynous, segments imbricate; tepals deciduous, 6-18, in 3 or more whorls of 3, ± similar or outer tepals sepaloid
, inner tepals petaloid
; stamens numerous
, hypogynous, free, spirally arranged
very short to 1/2 length
; anthers introrse
, or extrorse
, longitudinally dehiscent
with distal appendage
; pistils numerous, superior, spirally arranged on elongate
receptacle (torus), stalked
or sessile, free or ±concrescent, 1-locular; placentation marginal
, placenta 1; ovules 1-2; style 1, short and recurved (Magnolia ) or large and winglike (Liriodendron ) ; stigma 1, terminal or terminal decurrent (Magnolia ) or recurved (Liriodendron ) . Fruits conelike syncarps consisting of aggregates of coalescent
, woody follicles (follicetums, as in Magnolia ) or apocarps
consisting of aggregates of indehiscent samaras (samaracetums, as in Liriodendron ) . Seeds 1-2 per pistil, arillate
, endosperm oily (Magnolia ), or without aril, adherent
to dry endocarp ( Liriodendron ) .
Genera ca. 6(-12), species ca. 220 (2 genera, 9 species in the flora ) : mostly in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Western Hemisphere.
Magnoliaceae are pollinated by beetles.
Herbarium material of Magnolia is usually incomplete and inadequate for critical study. Collections should include material of the stipules, spathaceous bracts, a full complement of stamens, and all of the perianth segments to facilitate identification of Magnolia species.
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves distinctly alternate or sometimes crowded in terminal
; stipules early deciduous, free
to and proximal
. Leaf blade
deeply cordate or auriculate
or cuneate to abruptly narrowed or rounded
entire, apex obtuse
or acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white or green to glaucous, pubescent
. Flowers protogynous, appearing with or before leaves; tepals 9-15, petaloid
, usually spreading
, creamy white, rarely greenish, yellow, or orange-yellow, outermost tepals sepaloid
, sometimes strongly reflexed
, greenish; stamens on elongate
torus, early deciduous; filaments
white or purple, very short; anthers
. Follicles persistent
, forming conelike aggregate, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds with red, pink, or orange oily aril, extruded from follicles and suspended by funiculi. x
Species ca. 120: temperate and tropical regions , Western Hemisphere, Asia (Himalayas, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia) .
Species Magnolia grandiflora
, single-trunked, to 37 m.
gray, rough, thick,
in thick plates
densely red- or white-hairy. Leaves distinctly alternate, not in
; stipules 2, free
, 4.5-13 × 1.5-3.5
cm, abaxially densely brown-silky, sometimes deeply notched
narrowly to broadly elliptic
, (7.5-) 13-20(-26)
× (4.5-) 6-10(-12.5) cm, thick-leathery, base
apex abruptly tapered and acute to short-acuminate, rarely obtuse
surfaces abaxially glabrous to densely red-brown felted, adaxially
bright green, lustrous
. Flowers strongly lemony fragrant,
15-30(-45) cm across; spathaceous
bracts 2, leathery, outer bract
abaxially brown to grayish pilose
, deeply notched, smaller, inner
bract adaxially densely brown to grayish pilose, shallowly notched,
larger; tepals creamy white; stamens (179-) 213-383(-405), 16-29
purple; pistils (45-) 55-81(-89). Follicetums cylindric
to somewhat obovoid
, 7-10 × 3.5-5 cm; follicles beaked
to densely silky-villous. Seeds lenticular
to narrowly ellipsoid
(9-) 12-14 mm, adaxially slightly grooved
, aril red. 2 n =114. [source]
Magnolia grandiflora (a hexaploid ) is highly variable, especially the leaves, which range from glabrous to densely red-brown felted on the abaxial surface. It is the only magnolia species in the flora with free stipules, and the inner spathaceous bract is unique among Magnolia taxa in the flora. Curled filiform trichomes occur on the abaxial leaf surface. In the wild, hybrids with M. virginiana (a diploid) have been reported but not confirmed by the present author . The compatibility of these taxa is well known from the Freeman hybrid, a highly sterile tetraploid growing at the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C. In crosses using the hexaploid M. grandiflora, this parent is dominant and nearly masks the other parent. [source]
Magnolia grandiflora is an escape , and it naturalizes in the tidewater area of Virginia and locally elsewhere beyond its natural range in the southeastern United States. It ranks among the noblest of North American broadleaved trees and is cultivated widely in the United States and in many other countries. A large number of cultivars have been introduced to horticulture . [source]
ID Features: Wooly, brown pubescence on terminal buds. Terminal buds are 0.75" to 1.25" long. Valvate, appressed and small lateral buds. Ash-gray, smooth bark. Emits citrus odor when branch bruised. Red seeds. Large, white flowers.
Flowers: White flowers. Blooms in spring and sporadically throughout season . Fragrant. Up to 12" in diameter. Saucer shaped. Found singly. • Bloom Period: February, March, April. • Flower Color: near white, white • Flower Conspicuous: Large, cup shaped
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 6400 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit: Elongated aggregate of follicles, 3" to 8" long. Red seeds. Showy. Persistent . Attracts birds. Matures in September. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Large, leathery, glossy • Foliage Shape: Ovate • Foliage Color: Green • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , evergreen leaves. Elliptic leaf shape. 5" to 10" long. 2" to 5" wide. Entire leaf margins. Dense, brown pubescence on underside. Think and leathery. Leaf color is dark green. • Fall foliage: No fall color. • Winter foliage: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Dense • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate. • Mature Height (feet): 100.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 40 • Size: 30 to 80 ft . or taller, 15 to 50 ft. or more wide. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Espalier . Buffer . Screen . For flowers and fruit. For fragrance. As a specimen. Shade tree . Street tree. Golf courses . Park tree. • Liabilities: Leaves and fruit can be a litter problem. Can not tolerate soil compaction and rarely with survive in a construction. site. Roots will girdle . Scale and aphids. Leaf spot. Thin bark , easily damaged by lawn equipment. Young trees don't flower. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Full sun to shade. Soil tolerant . Transplant from container or B&B, difficult to transplant. Prune after flowering. Prefers rich, well-drained soil. Somewhat drought tolerant.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Medium • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 6.5 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: High • Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Magnoliaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Magnolia Family
- Order: Magnoliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
M. foetida (Linnaeus) Sargent • M. lacunosa Rafinesque • M. virginiana Linnaeus Var. foetida Linnaeus • Magnolia angustifolia Millais • Magnolia elliptica Link • Magnolia exoniensis Millais • Magnolia ferruginea W. Watson • Magnolia ferruginea Z. Collins Ex Rafinesque • Magnolia foetida (L.) Sarg. • Magnolia foetida f. margaretta Ashe • Magnolia foetida f. parvifolia Ashe • Magnolia foetida Sarg. • Magnolia galissoniensis Millais • Magnolia gloriosa Millais • Magnolia grandiflora f. galissoniensis K. Koch • Magnolia grandiflora f. lanceolata (Aiton) Rehder • Magnolia grandiflora var. elliptica W. T. Aiton • Magnolia grandiflora var. exoniensis Loud. • Magnolia grandiflora var. ferruginea Sims • Magnolia grandiflora var. lanceolata Aiton • Magnolia grandiflora var. obovata W. T. Aiton • Magnolia hartwegii G. Nicholson • Magnolia hartwicus G. Nicholson • Magnolia lacunosa Raf. • Magnolia lanceolata Link • Magnolia longifolia Sweet • Magnolia maxima Lodd. Ex G. Don • Magnolia microphylla Ser. • Magnolia obovata Aiton Ex Link • Magnolia Obtusifolia • Magnolia praecox Millais • Magnolia pravertiana Millais • Magnolia rotundifolia Millais • Magnolia stricta G. Nicholson • Magnolia tardiflora Ser. • Magnolia tomentosa Ser. • Magnolia virginiana var. foetida L.
Publishing author : L.
Members of the genus Magnolia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 213 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
M. acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. acuminata (L.) L. var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (Yellow Cucumbertree) · M. acuminata (L.) L. 'Yellow Bird' (Yellow Bird Cucumbertree Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Butterflies' (Butterflies Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Koban Dori' (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. ashei (Ashe Magnolia) · M. biondii (Biond Magnolia) · M. campbellii (Pink Tulip Tree) · M. cavaleriei (Michelia) · M. champaca (Champaca) · M. chapensis (Michelia) · M. coco (Cempaka Gondok) · M. compressa (Michelia) · M. dawsoniana (Magnolia) · M. dawsoniana 'Chyverton Red' (Magnolia) · M. dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. delavayi (Evergreen Chinese Magnolia) · M. denudata (Lilytree) · M. denudata 'Forrest's Pink' (Forrest's Pink Tulip Tree) · M. denudata 'Iolanthe' (Tulip Tree) · M. doltsopa (Chinese Magnolia) · M. ernestii (Michelia) · M. figo (Banana Magnolia) · M. floribunda (Magnolia) · M. fraseri (Fraser Magnolia) · M. fraseri var. fraseri (Fraser´s Magnolia) · M. grandiflora (Bull Bay) · M. grandiflora var. Alta (Alta Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Al's Golden' (Als Golden Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baby Doll' (Baby Doll Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baldwin' (Baldwin Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blackwell' (Blackwell Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blanchard' (Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bracken's Brown Beauty' (Bracken's Brown Beauty Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bronze Brown Beauty' (Bronze Brown Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Cairo' (Cairo Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Celestial' (Celestial Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Claudia Wannamaker' (Claudia Wannamaker Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Coppertop' (Coppertop Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'D.d. Blanchard' (D.d. Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Edith Bogue' (Edith Bogue Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Emory' (Emory Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Fairhope' (Fairhope Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gallosoniensis' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gloriosa' (Gloriosa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Goliath' (Goliath Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Greenback' (Greenback Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Green Giant' (Green Giant Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Hasse' (Hasse Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Howard Poole' (Howard Poole Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Paris' (Kay Paris Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Parris' (Kay Parris Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Little Gem' (Dwarf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Mainstreet' (Mainstreet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Majestic Beauty' (Majestic Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'MGTIG' (Greenback" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Millais' (Millais Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Monlia' (Majestic Beauty® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Montreaux' (Montreaux Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Ocean Wave' (Ocean Wave Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Orbit' (Orbit Southern Magnolia) · M. Grandiflora 'Overton' (Southern Magnolia Overton) · M. grandiflora 'Pioneer' (Pioneer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Robert Reich' (Robert Reich Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Russet' (Russet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Saint Mary' (Saint Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Samuel Sommer' (Samuel Sommer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Satin Leaf' (Satin Leaf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Smitty' (Smitty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Southern Charm' (Teddy Bear® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Spring Hill' (Spring Hill Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'St. Mary' (St. Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Sunset' (Sunset Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Symmes Select' (Symmes Select Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Teddy Bear' (Teddy Bear Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Timeless Beauty' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tmgh' (Alta" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tulsa' (Tulsa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Twentyfour Below' (Twentyfour Below Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Variegata' (Variegata Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Victoria' (Victoria Southern Magnolia) · M. insignis (Red Lotus Tree) · M. kobus (Japanese Magnolia) · M. lacei (White Michelia) · M. laevifolia (Michelia) · M. liliflora 'Nigra' (Nigra Magnolia) · M. liliifera (Egg Magnolia) · M. liliiflora (Lily Magnolia) · M. liliiflora 'Nigra' (Magnolia) · M. macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. macrophylla dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. macrophylla macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla var. ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. maudiae (Michelia) · M. montana (Mountain Magnolia) · M. nitida (Eastern Joy Lotustree) · M. obovata (Whitebark Magnolia) · M. officinalis (Medicinal Magnolia) · M. officinalis var. biloba (Chinese Magnolia)
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14241126
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:554723-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 23108
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18074
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 554722-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMAG02040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MAGR4
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- Mean = 188.460 meters (618.307 feet), Standard Deviation = 587.540 based on 292 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]