- The largest known tree of Magnolia acuminata, 29.6m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.26m, is recorded from a specimen cultivated in Waukon, Iowa (American Forestry Association 1994). [source]
- The Cherokee and Iroquois tribes used Magnolia acuminata, largely the bark , as an analgesic, antidiarrheal, gastrointestinal aid, anthelmintic , toothache remedy, and for various other uses (D.E. Moerman 1986). [source]
Common Names in English:
Cucumber Magnolia, Blue Magnolia, Cucumber-Tree, Cucumbertree Magnolia
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves alternate, simple
; stipules early or tardily deciduous, at first surrounding stem, adnate
side of petiole
in Magnolia grandiflora ), often ochreate, leaving persistent
around node. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, unlobed (or evenly 2-10-lobed in Liriodendron ), margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, solitary flowers (often paired
in Magnolia ashei ), pedunculate
bracts 2 (Magnolia ) or 1 (Liriodendron ) . Flowers: perianth hypogynous, segments imbricate; tepals deciduous, 6-18, in 3 or more whorls of 3, ± similar or outer tepals sepaloid
, inner tepals petaloid
; stamens numerous
, hypogynous, free, spirally arranged
very short to 1/2 length
; anthers introrse
, or extrorse
, longitudinally dehiscent
with distal appendage
; pistils numerous, superior, spirally arranged on elongate
receptacle (torus), stalked
or sessile, free or ±concrescent, 1-locular; placentation marginal
, placenta 1; ovules 1-2; style 1, short and recurved (Magnolia ) or large and winglike (Liriodendron ) ; stigma 1, terminal or terminal decurrent (Magnolia ) or recurved (Liriodendron ) . Fruits conelike syncarps consisting of aggregates of coalescent
, woody follicles (follicetums, as in Magnolia ) or apocarps
consisting of aggregates of indehiscent samaras (samaracetums, as in Liriodendron ) . Seeds 1-2 per pistil, arillate
, endosperm oily (Magnolia ), or without aril, adherent
to dry endocarp ( Liriodendron ) .
Genera ca. 6(-12), species ca. 220 (2 genera, 9 species in the flora ) : mostly in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Western Hemisphere.
Magnoliaceae are pollinated by beetles.
Herbarium material of Magnolia is usually incomplete and inadequate for critical study. Collections should include material of the stipules, spathaceous bracts, a full complement of stamens, and all of the perianth segments to facilitate identification of Magnolia species.
, deciduous or evergreen
. Leaves distinctly alternate or sometimes crowded in terminal
; stipules early deciduous, free
to and proximal
. Leaf blade
deeply cordate or auriculate
or cuneate to abruptly narrowed or rounded
entire, apex obtuse
or acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially chalky white or green to glaucous, pubescent
. Flowers protogynous, appearing with or before leaves; tepals 9-15, petaloid
, usually spreading
, creamy white, rarely greenish, yellow, or orange-yellow, outermost tepals sepaloid
, sometimes strongly reflexed
, greenish; stamens on elongate
torus, early deciduous; filaments
white or purple, very short; anthers
. Follicles persistent
, forming conelike aggregate, abaxially dehiscent. Seeds with red, pink, or orange oily aril, extruded from follicles and suspended by funiculi. x
Species ca. 120: temperate and tropical regions , Western Hemisphere, Asia (Himalayas, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia) .
Species Magnolia acuminata
, deciduous, single-trunked, to 30 m.
Bark dark gray,
. Pith homogeneous
. Twigs and foliar
Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal
stipules 3.2-4.3 × 1.4-1.6 cm, abaxially pilose
. Leaf blade
broadly ovate-elliptic, oblong
to oblong-obovate, rarely somewhat
, (5-) 10-25(-40) × 4-15(-26) cm, base
cuneate to truncate
or broadly rounded
, often somewhat oblique
, apex acuminate; surfaces
abaxially pale green to whitish, pilose to nearly glabrous
green, glabrous or rarely scattered
pilose. Flowers slightly
, 6-9 cm across; spathaceous
bracts 2, abaxially silky-pubescent;
, strongly glaucous to greenish or sometimes yellow to
orange-yellow, outermost tepals reflexed
, much shorter, green; stamens
(50-) 60-122(-139), 5-13 mm; filaments
white; pistils (35-) 40-45(-60).
Follicetums oblong-cylindric, often asymmetric
, 2-7 ×
0.8-2.7 cm; follicles short-beaked, glabrous. Seeds heart-shaped,
somewhat flattened to somewhat globose
, 9-10 mm, smooth
, aril reddish
orange. 2n=76. [source]
Trees, deciduous, single-trunked, to 30 m. Bark dark gray, furrowed. Pith homogeneous. Twigs and foliar buds silvery-pubescent. Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules 3.2-4.3 × 1.4-1.6 cm, abaxially pilose. Leaf blade broadly ovate-elliptic, oblong to oblong-obovate, rarely somewhat rotund, (5-) 10-25(-40) × 4-15(-26) cm, base cuneate to truncate or broadly rounded, often somewhat oblique, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially pale green to whitish, pilose to nearly glabrous, adaxially green, glabrous or rarely scattered pilose. Flowers slightly aromatic, 6-9 cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, abaxially silky-pubescent; tepals erect, strongly glaucous to greenish or sometimes yellow to orange-yellow, outermost tepals reflexed, much shorter, green; stamens (50-) 60-122(-139), 5-13 mm; filaments white; pistils (35-) 40-45(-60). Follicetums oblong-cylindric, often asymmetric, 2-7 × 0.8-2.7 cm; follicles short-beaked, glabrous. Seeds heart-shaped, somewhat flattened to somewhat globose, 9-10 mm, smooth, aril reddish orange. 2 n =76. [source]
Studies of Magnolia acuminata have failed to reconcile the nature of variation in this widespread species. In an attempt to settle differences in variation patterns, J.W. Hardin (1954) recognized four infraspecific taxa in M. acuminata. Later (1972, 1989) Hardin abandoned his earlier views for a more conservative stance, stating that variation in M. acuminata lacked any consistent pattern or geographic correlation . This is the view taken here--no infraspecific taxa are accepted for M. acuminata at this time. Its flowers are normally greenish and glaucous or sometimes yellow to orange-yellow, less showy than those of other magnolias in the flora . In southern areas, trees with yellow to orange-yellow flowers (originally described by Michaux as M. cordata ) occur in North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and perhaps elsewhere, together with trees that bear normal greenish flowers. Both filiform and flagelliform trichomes occur on the leaves; cylindric trichomes also occur. [source]
Magnolia acuminata is of value to horticulturists because no other species of the genus has yellow tepals. Magnolia acuminata contains major quantities of xanthophyll lutein-5,6-epoxide and, in smaller amounts, acarotene-5,6-epoxide. Although this carotenoid occurs randomly throughout populations of M. acuminata, often it is masked by chlorophyll and not visibly expressed. Sometimes the carotenoid pigment shows through, as in the hybrid M. acuminata × M. denudata 'Elizabeth'. In that cross the M. acuminata parent tree was a nondescript plant with greenish flowers; yet out of this hybrid came 'Elizabeth', a stunning plant with light canary yellow flowers, a result completely unexpected. A thorough field study of M. acuminata is clearly warranted, and further investigation of the carotenoid flower pigments is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this widespread tree. [source]
ID Features: Whitish, silvery, silky pubescent terminal buds. Terminal buds are 0.5" to 0.75" long. Valvate, appressed lateral buds. Ash-gray, smooth bark. U-shaped leaf scar. Emits spicy odor when branch bruised. Red seeds. Greenish white flowers.
Habit: A deciduous tall tree with wide-spreading branches, pyramidal in youth and becoming more open with age.
Flowers: Greenish white flowers. Fragrant. Blooms in spring . Generally hidden by foliage . 2.5" to 3" in diameter. • Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: chartreuseyellow-green
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. Entire leaf margins. Ovate leaf shape. 6" to 12" long. Yellowish green leaf color. Cordate leaf base. Slightly pubescent . • Fall foliage: Yellowish bronze fall color.
Growth Rate: Fast. • Size: 50' to 80' tall and equal in width .
Hardy to zone 4 and warmer parts of 3
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Full sun to partial shade. Soil tolerant . Transplant from container or B&B, difficult to transplant. Prune after flowering. Prefers fertile , moist soil.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Magnoliaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Magnolia Family
- Order: Magnoliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Magnolianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Kobus acuminata (L.) Nieuwl. • Kobus acuminata (Linnaeus) Nieuwland • M. acuminata cordata (Michaux) E. Murray • M. acuminata var. aurea (Ashe) Ashe • M. acuminata var. cordata (Michaux) Seringe • M. acuminata var. ludoviciana Sargent • M. acuminata var. ozarkensis Ashe • M. acuminata var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy • M. cordata Michaux • Magnolia acuminata cordata (Michx.) E. Murray • Magnolia acuminata f. aurea (Ashe) Hardin • Magnolia acuminata ozarkensis (Ashe) E. Murray • Magnolia acuminata var. alabamensis Ashe • Magnolia acuminata var. aurea (Ashe) Ashe • Magnolia acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg. • Magnolia acuminata var. decandollei (Savi) Dc. • Magnolia acuminata var. ludoviciana Sarg. • Magnolia acuminata var. ozarkensis Ashe • Magnolia acuminata var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy • Magnolia candollei Link • Magnolia cordata Michx. • Magnolia decandollei Savi • Magnolia pensylvanica Dc. • Magnolia rustica Dc. • Magnolia virginiana L. Var. acuminata L. • Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus var. Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata L. • T. acuminatum var. aureum Ashe • T. acuminatum var. flavum Small • T. acuminatum var. ludovicianum (Sargent) Ashe • T. acuminatum var. ozarkense (Ashe) Ashe • T. americanum Spach • T. americanum var. subcordatum Spach • T. cordatum (Michaux) Small • Tulipastrum acuminatum (L.) Small • Tulipastrum acuminatum (Linnaeus) Small • Tulipastrum acuminatum var. aureum Ashe • Tulipastrum acuminatum var. ludovicianum (Sarg.) Ashe • Tulipastrum americanum Spach • Tulipastrum americanum var. subcordatum Spach • Tulipastrum americanum var. vulgare Spach • Tulipastrum cordatum (Michx.) Small • Yulania acuminata (L.) D. L. Fu
Members of the genus Magnolia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 213 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
M. acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. acuminata (L.) L. var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (Yellow Cucumbertree) · M. acuminata (L.) L. 'Yellow Bird' (Yellow Bird Cucumbertree Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Butterflies' (Butterflies Magnolia) · M. acuminata 'Koban Dori' (Cucumber Magnolia) · M. ashei (Ashe Magnolia) · M. biondii (Biond Magnolia) · M. campbellii (Pink Tulip Tree) · M. cavaleriei (Michelia) · M. champaca (Champaca) · M. chapensis (Michelia) · M. coco (Cempaka Gondok) · M. compressa (Michelia) · M. dawsoniana (Magnolia) · M. dawsoniana 'Chyverton Red' (Magnolia) · M. dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. delavayi (Evergreen Chinese Magnolia) · M. denudata (Lilytree) · M. denudata 'Forrest's Pink' (Forrest's Pink Tulip Tree) · M. denudata 'Iolanthe' (Tulip Tree) · M. doltsopa (Chinese Magnolia) · M. ernestii (Michelia) · M. figo (Banana Magnolia) · M. floribunda (Magnolia) · M. fraseri (Fraser Magnolia) · M. fraseri var. fraseri (Fraser´s Magnolia) · M. grandiflora (Bull Bay) · M. grandiflora var. Alta (Alta Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Al's Golden' (Als Golden Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baby Doll' (Baby Doll Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Baldwin' (Baldwin Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blackwell' (Blackwell Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Blanchard' (Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bracken's Brown Beauty' (Bracken's Brown Beauty Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Bronze Brown Beauty' (Bronze Brown Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Cairo' (Cairo Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Celestial' (Celestial Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Claudia Wannamaker' (Claudia Wannamaker Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Coppertop' (Coppertop Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'D.d. Blanchard' (D.d. Blanchard Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Edith Bogue' (Edith Bogue Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Emory' (Emory Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Fairhope' (Fairhope Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gallosoniensis' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Gloriosa' (Gloriosa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Goliath' (Goliath Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Greenback' (Greenback Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Green Giant' (Green Giant Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Hasse' (Hasse Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Howard Poole' (Howard Poole Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Paris' (Kay Paris Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Kay Parris' (Kay Parris Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Little Gem' (Dwarf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Mainstreet' (Mainstreet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Majestic Beauty' (Majestic Beauty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'MGTIG' (Greenback" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Millais' (Millais Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Monlia' (Majestic Beauty® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Montreaux' (Montreaux Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Ocean Wave' (Ocean Wave Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Orbit' (Orbit Southern Magnolia) · M. Grandiflora 'Overton' (Southern Magnolia Overton) · M. grandiflora 'Pioneer' (Pioneer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Robert Reich' (Robert Reich Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Russet' (Russet Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Saint Mary' (Saint Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Samuel Sommer' (Samuel Sommer Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Satin Leaf' (Satin Leaf Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Smitty' (Smitty Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Southern Charm' (Teddy Bear® Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Spring Hill' (Spring Hill Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'St. Mary' (St. Mary Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Sunset' (Sunset Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Symmes Select' (Symmes Select Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Teddy Bear' (Teddy Bear Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Timeless Beauty' (Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tmgh' (Alta" Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Tulsa' (Tulsa Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Twentyfour Below' (Twentyfour Below Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Variegata' (Variegata Southern Magnolia) · M. grandiflora 'Victoria' (Victoria Southern Magnolia) · M. insignis (Red Lotus Tree) · M. kobus (Japanese Magnolia) · M. lacei (White Michelia) · M. laevifolia (Michelia) · M. liliflora 'Nigra' (Nigra Magnolia) · M. liliifera (Egg Magnolia) · M. liliiflora (Lily Magnolia) · M. liliiflora 'Nigra' (Magnolia) · M. macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. macrophylla dealbata (Cloudforest Magnolia) · M. macrophylla macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) · M. macrophylla var. ashei (Ashe's Magnolia) · M. maudiae (Michelia) · M. montana (Mountain Magnolia) · M. nitida (Eastern Joy Lotustree) · M. obovata (Whitebark Magnolia) · M. officinalis (Medicinal Magnolia) · M. officinalis var. biloba (Chinese Magnolia)
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:554627-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 23094
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- Mean = 312.980 meters (1,026.837 feet), Standard Deviation = 224.120 based on 501 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]