Common Names in English:
Lemon-Scent Tarweed, Lemonscent Madia, Lemonscented Madia
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 5-250 cm. Stems erect
. Leaves mostly cauline (at flowering) proximal
opposite (often in rosettes), distal alternate; sessile; blades
lanceolate or oblong-linear to linear
usually entire, sometimes toothed
, usually glandular-pubescent
as well. Heads usually radiate
glomerata), in corymbiform
, or spiciform
arrays or in glomerules
. Peduncular bracts: pit-glands, tack-glands, and/or spines 0. Involucres ellipsoid
, depressed-globose, globose
, obconic, ovoid
, or urceolate
, 1-10+ mm diam. Phyllaries 0 (then outer paleae functioning as phyllaries, sometimes in M. glomerata), or 1-22 in 1 series (lance-linear
to lance-attenuate or oblanceolate
, herbaceous, each mostly or wholly enveloping a subtended ray ovary, abaxially hirsute and, usually, glandular
). Receptacles flat to convex
, paleate (paleae persistent or falling readily, in 1 series between rays and discs, ± connate
, phyllary-like, more scarious
). Ray florets 0 (sometimes in M. glomerata), or 1-22, pistillate
; corollas yellowish (with maroon bases
sometimes in M. elegans; purplish red sometimes in M. sativa). Disc florets 1-80+, bisexual
and fertile or functionally staminate
; corollas usually yellow, sometimes purplish, tubes
shorter than or about equaling funnelform
5, deltate (anthers
± dark purple or yellow to brownish; styles glabrous proximal to branches). Ray cypselae compressed
, ± 3-angled, or rarely terete
, basal attachments
central or offset
, apices sometimes beaked
, faces glabrous) ; pappi 0. Disc cypselae similar, sometimes obovoid
(often ± straight, basal attachments central, apices not beaked), sometimes 0; pappi 0. x = 8.
Species 10: North America, South America, Pacific Islands (Hawaii, probably introduced ).
Species Madia citriodora
Plants 10-70 cm, self-compatible (heads not showy). Stems proximally villous to hirsute , distally glandular-pubescent , glands purple, lateral branches often surpassing main stems . Leaf blades linear , 2-9 cm × 1-10 mm. Heads in open, corymbiform arrays. Involucres ± ovoid to hemispheric , 6-8 mm. Phyllaries ± villous or hirsute, glandular-pubescent as well (often sparsely), glands purple, apices usually ± erect , flat. Paleae mostly persistent , mostly connate 1/2+ their lengths . Ray florets 5-12; corollas greenish yellow, laminae 4-11 mm. Disc florets 8-50+, functionally staminate ; corollas 2-3 mm, pubescent ; anthers ± dark purple. Ray cypselae black or brown, sometimes mottled , glossy, ± 3-angled (abaxial sides rounded , adaxial sides 2-faced, angles between those faces ca. 70°), beakless (or nearly so). Disc cypselae 0. 2n = 16. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July.
Openings in woodlands, forests
, and shrublands, disturbed
banks, often in dry, stony or clayey soils; 30-1600 m
Openings in woodlands, forests, and shrublands, disturbed sites, stream banks, often in dry, stony or clayey soils; 30-1600 m (Ref. 101952).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hemizonia citriodora (Greene) A. Gray
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Madia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
M. anomala (Plump-Seed Tarweed) · M. bolanderi (Bolander's Madia) · M. citrigracilis (Shasta Tarweed) · M. citriodora (Lemon-Scent Tarweed) · M. doris-nilesiae (Doris Niles Madia) · M. elegans densifolia (Common Madia) · M. elegans vernalis (Common Madia) · M. elegans wheeleri (Common Madia) · M. exigua (Little Tarweed) · M. glomerata (Cluster Tarweed) · M. gracilis (Grassy Tarweed) · M. hallii (Hall's Madia) · M. madioides (Woodland Madia) · M. minima (Least Tarweed) · M. nutans (Nodding Madia) · M. radiata (Golden Madia) · M. rammii (Ramm's Madia) · M. sativa (Chile Tarweed) · M. stebbinsii (Stebbins' Madia) · M. subspicata (Slender Tarweed) · M. yosemitana (Yosemite Tarweed)
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- A flora of northwest America, containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia. Portland, Or., 1903. url .
- A flora of northwest America: containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia / by Thomas Howell. Vol. 1, Phanerogamae. Portland, Or.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 347.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 658, p. 917.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 11 1906 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 575, p. 576.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 202, p. 294.
- Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: New Era, 1914. url p. 263, p. 264.
- Flora of the southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1914. url , .
- Flora of the state of Washington / by Charles V. Piper. Washington: G.P.O., 1906 url p. 576.
- Flora of the state of Washington. By Charles V. Piper. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1906. url p. 576.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 224, p. 391.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 202, p. 294.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 490.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and Co. [etc., etc.]1878-1884. url .
- Synoptical flora of North America: the Gamopetalae, a second edition of vol. I, pt. II, and vol. II, pt. I / collected by Asa Gray. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1888. url p. 307, p. 451.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 12, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 20, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658967
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-38022
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13750090
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:231601-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 38022
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST65050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MACI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 48811