Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Ground Pine, Flat-Branch Tree Club-Moss, Flat-Branched Tree Club-Moss, Ground Pine Clubmoss, Ground-Pine, Princess Pine, Princess-Pine, Rare Clubmoss, Tree Club Moss, Tree Clubmoss
Common Names in French:
Lycopode Foncé, Lycopode Obscur
Common Names in unspecified:
Ground Pine, Rare Clubmoss, Tree Club Moss
, on rock, or epiphytic. Roots
emerging near origin
, or growing through cortex and emergent some distance
from origin. Horizontal stems present or absent, mainly protostelic, in some species becoming actino- or plectostelic, on substrate surface or subterranean
, or forming stolons. Upright shoots
or branched, usually conspicuously leafy at least at base
; abscising gemmae formed by reduced lateral
shoots. Lateral shoots present or absent, simple or branched, branching pattern
dichotomous and sometimes pseudomonopodial; leaves uniform
or trimorphic. Upright and lateral shoots round
or flat in cross
; leaves on subterranean parts flat, appressed
, nonphotosynthetic, and scalelike; leaves on aerial
parts appressed, ascending
, or spreading
, with 1 central unbranched vein
, needlelike to lanceolate to ovate
to dense and imbricate, with or without basal and/or mucilage canals. Strobili sessile or stalked
, upright, nodding
, or pendent. Sporangia solitary, adaxial
near leaf base or axillary
leaves (sporophylls) unmodified and photosynthetic to much modified, nonphotosynthetic, reduced, and aggregated in strobili; sporangia reniform to globose
, thick-walled with hundreds
of spores, outer walls variously modified. Spores all 1 kind, trilete, thick-walled, surfaces pitted
to small-grooved, rugulate, or reticulate
. Gametophytes subterranean and nonphotosynthetic or surficial
Genera 10--15, species 350--400 (7 genera, 27 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
The Lycopodiaceae are an extremely diverse , ancient family . The family may contain even more than the estimated 400 species because the tropical members and the very large genus Phlegmariurus are still poorly known. The relationships among genera of Lycopodiaceae are not well understood because large evolutionary gaps exist among most genera. Some of the genera, notably Diphasiastrum, Huperzia, and Lycopodiella, exhibit extensive interspecific hybridization, which has caused much taxonomic confusion in the past. Differences in expressions of many of the generic characters are subtle, and some of the characters are microscopic.
emerging from point
on underside of main stems
. Horizontal stems on substrate surface or subterranean
, long-creeping. Upright shoots
along horizontal stem, 5--16 mm diam., round
or flat in cross
, unbranched or with 1--4 lateral
. Leaves not imbricate, linear
to linear-lanceolate; leaves on horizontal stems scattered, appressed
, membranous; leaves on lateral branchlets mostly 6-ranked or more, monomorphic
with few exceptions, appressed, ascending
entire to dentate
branchlets and gemmae absent. Strobili single and sessile or multiple
, apex blunt
to acute; peduncle, when present, conspicuously leafy; sporophylls extremely reduced, much shorter than peduncle or stem leaves. Sporangia reniform
. Spores reticulate
, sides at equator convex
acute. Gametophytes nonphotosynthetic, mycorrhizal, subterranean, flat and irregularly button-shaped, with ring
meristem around circumference. x
Species 15--25: mainly temperate and subarctic .
In striking contrast to Diphasiastrum, Huperzia, and Lycopodiella, interspecific hybridization is practically unknown in Lycopodium. Many of the species now recognized in Lycopodium have been segregated from Lycopodium clavatum, L. annotinum, and L. jussiaei Desvaux ex Poiret. The three groups given in the key below should probably be treated as subgenera .
Species Lycopodium obscurum
Horizontal stems subterranean . Upright shoots treelike, many branched, branchlets numerous and strongly differentiated; annual bud constrictions absent; leaves on main stem below lateral branchlets tightly appressed , needlelike, 3.5--4.5 X 0.6--0.7 mm, soft. Lateral branchlets flat in cross section , 6--9 mm diam.; annual bud constrictions inconspicuous. Leaves in 6 ranks , 1 on upperside, 4 lateral, ascending-spreading, 2.5--5.5 X 0.5--1.2 mm, and 1 on underside, much smaller than others, ascending ; margins entire; apex lacking hair tip . Strobili 1--6 at tip of shoot, sessile, 12--60 mm. Sporophylls 3 X 2 mm, apex long, gradually narrowing. 2 n = 68. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Flowers: Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Rich hardwood forests and successional shrubby areas; 0--1600 m (Ref. 101870).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Dumortier, 1829
- Palisot de Beauvois ex Mirbel, in Lamarck & Mirbel, 1802
- club mosses
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Club-moss [Greek lykos, wolf, and pous, podes, foot; in reference to the resemblance of the branch tips to a wolf's paw]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Lycopodium obscurum L.
- Specific epithet: obscurum - L.
- Genus: Lycopodium () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Club-moss [Greek lykos, wolf, and pous, podes, foot; in reference to the resemblance of the branch tips to a wolf's paw]
- Family: Lycopodiaceae () - Palisot de Beauvois ex Mirbel, in Lamarck & Mirbel, 1802 - club mosses
- Order: Lycopodiales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Class: Lycopodiopsida () - Bartl.
- Infraphylum: Lycophytae () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Lycophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: L. Publication
Pl. 2: 1102 (-1103) 1753 [1
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Lycopodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 51 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. alpinum (Alpine Club Moss) · L. annotinum (Clubmoss) · L. annotinum f. groen;andicum (Clubmoss) · L. annotinum pungens (Stiff Clubmoss) · L. apodum (Meadow Spike Moss) · L. argenteum (Northern Sennet) · L. carinatum (Club Moss) · L. cernua (Lycopodium) · L. circinale (Blackfin Barracuda) · L. clavatum (Common Club Moss) · L. clavatum contiguum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum f. brevipedunculatum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum f. incurvum (Common Club Moss) · L. clavatum f. robustinus (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum var. aristatum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum var. clavatum (Running Clubmoss) · L. clavatum var. raddianum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. complanatum (Plants) · L. complanatum complanatum (American Clubmoss) · L. complanatum f. canadense (Christmas Green) · L. dendroideum (Tree Groundpine) · L. deuterodensum (Bushy Clubmoss) · L. digitatum (Fan Club-Moss) · L. douglasii (Douglas' Spikemoss) · L. fastigiatum (Mountain Clubmoss) · L. habereri (Haberer's Clubmoss) · L. hickeyi (Hickey's Clubmoss) · L. issleri (Issler's Clubmoss) · L. lagopus (One-Cone Clubmoss) · L. longifolium (Pacific Threadfin) · L. lycopodiella (Lycopodiella) · L. mirabile (Thread-Fishes) · L. nudum (Clubmosses) · L. obscurum (Ground Pine) · L. obscurum f. dendroideum (Flat-Branch Tree Club-Moss) · L. obscurum f. foliaceum (Flat-Branch Tree Club-Moss) · L. obscurum f. parvispicatum (Ground Pine) · L. phlegmaria (Queensland Tassel-Fern) · L. proniflorum (Mullet) · L. pungens (Stiff Clubmoss) · L. sabinaefolium sitchense (Sitka Clubmoss) · L. sabinifolium (Ground-Fir) · L. scariosum (Spreading Clubmoss) · L. sitchense (Alaskan Clubmoss) · L. tristachyum (Deep-Root Clubmoss) · L. venustulum (Hairtip Clubmoss) · L. volubile (Climbing Clubmoss) · L. x habereri (Hybrid) · L. × issleri (Issler's Clubmoss) · L. x zeilleri (Zeiller's Clubmoss) · L. zeilleri (Deeproot Clubmoss)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana, by Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1921. url p. 271.
- A botanical exploration of the north shore of the gulf of St. Lawrence including an annotated list of the species of vascular plants, Ottawa, F. A. Acland, printer, 1922. url p. 59.
- A catalogue of the flowering plants and vascular cryptogams, found in and near Lackawanna and Wyoming valleys, by William R. Dudley...and Charles O. Thurston...1892. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., E. B. Yordy, 1892. url .
- A manual of botany for the northern and middle states. By Amos Eaton. Albany: Printed and published by Websters and Skinners, 1818. url p. 310.
- A manual of botany, for the nothern and middle states of Americacontaining generic and specific descriptions of the indigenous plants and common cultivated exotics, growing north of Virginia; to which is prefixeda gramma Albany, Websters & Skinners, 1824. url p. 354.
- A textbook of botany for colleges / by William F. Ganong. New York: Macmillan, 1927. url p. 503.
- A textbook of botany for colleges. New York, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 503.
- A university text-book of botany. New York, Macmillan, 1910. url p. 304.
- Alaska / Harriman Alaska Expedition. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1901-1910. url p. 393.
- An ecological survey in northern Michigan. Prepared under the direction of Chas. C. Adams. A report from the University museum, University of Michigan, published by the state Board of geological survey as a part of the report for 1905. Lansing, Mich.: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford co., state printers, 1906. url p. 86.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 44.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 45.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 324, p. 406, p. 474, p. 615.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 36.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 12, p. 15, p. 8.
- Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1897- url p. 548.
- Annual report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1916-1921. url p. 89, p. 91.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 139, p. 142.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 268.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 135, p. 626, p. 642.
- Annual report. .. / [State Board of Agriculture]. [Montpelier, Vt.]: The Board, 1900-1908. url p. 4.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 47 - 51 1980 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 120, p. 140, p. 20, p. 28, p. 34, p. 38, p. 47, p. 73.
- Bog-trotting for orchids. New York, Knickerbocker, 1904. url p. 297.
- Brooklyn Botanic Garden record. 25 1936 [Brooklyn]: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1912-44. url p. 1.
- Budd's flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces / [Ottawa]: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1987. url p. 51, p. 52, p. 54.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 14, p. 153, p. 52, p. 626, p. 642, p. 8.
- Bulletin / Chicago Natural History Museum. [Chicago, Ill.]: The Museum, [1944-1966] url p. 8.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 135, p. 307.
- Bulletin / University of Montana. Missoula: University of Montana, 1901-1910. url p. 8.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 27 1900 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 149, p. 150, p. 207, p. 246, p. 29, p. 304, p. 36, p. 366, p. 370, p. 55, p. 75.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 135.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 31.
- Catalogue of the phanerogams and ferns of Licking County, Ohio. Granville, Ohio, Press of Granville Times, 1892. url .
- Checklist of plants of the Ottawa District. Ottawa, 1958. url p. 5.
- Compendium floræ philadelphicæ: containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of ten miles around Philadelphia / by William P.C. Barton. Philadelphia: published by M. Carey, 1818. url p. 203.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url .
- Contributions from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1895- url p. 66, p. 69, p. 71, p. 76.
- Contributions from the Osborn Botanical Laboratory. [New Haven?]Osborn Botanical Laboratory, Yale University, url p. 246.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 22 1920-1927 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 271, p. 534, p. 59.
- Contributions from the herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada / by James M. Macoun. [Ottawa?: s.n.], 1894-1906. url p. 50.
- Contributions to Canadian biology and fisheries. Toronto [etc.] url p. 48.
- Contributions to Canadian botany / by Jas. M. Macoun. Ottawa: [s. n.], 1894-1906. url p. 50.
- Contributions to the botany of Vermont. Burlington, Vt.: Botanical Dept., University of Vermont, 1898-1911. url p. 4, p. 5.
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 41.
- Facts relating to the history of Groton, Massachusetts, by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 5.
- Ferns and fern allies of Canada / [Ottawa]: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1989. url p. 26, p. 29, p. 406.
- Ferns and flowering plants of South Dakota. Sioux Falls, S.D.: W.A. Beach, 1899 url p. 105.
- Field, forest, and garden botany; a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated, by Asa Gray. .. Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company url p. 502.
- Flora montana formosae; an enumeration of plants found on Mt. Morrison, the central chain and other mountainous regions of Formosa at altitudes of 3, 000-13, 000 ft. By B. Hayata. Tokyo, The University, 1908. url p. 241.
- Flora of Burlington and vicinity; a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation, by Nellie F. Flynn. Burlington, Free Press Printing Co., 1911. url p. 5.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 8.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 63, p. 64.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 23, p. 25.
- Flora of Mount Desert Island, Maine: a preliminary catalogue of the plants growing on Mount Desert and the adjacent islands / by Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield; with a geological introduction by William Morris Davis, and a new map of Mount Desert Island. Cambridge, Mass.: J. Wilson, 1894. url p. 188.
- Flora of Mount Desert island, Maine. A preliminary catalogue of the plants growing on Mount Desert and the adjacent islands. By Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield. With a geological introduction by William Morris Davis, and a new map of Mount Desert island. Cambridge, Mass., J. Wilson and son, 1894. url p. 188.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 191.
- Flora of the Blue Hills, Middlesex Fells, Stony Brook and Beaver Brook reservations, of the Metropolitan Park Commission, Massachusetts. Boston: C.M. Barrows, 1896. url p. 114.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 59.
- Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. [Ottawa: Queen's Printer], 1968-. url p. 12, p. 131, p. 555, p. 99.
- Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia / by P.A. Rydberg. New York: The author, 1922. url p. 1054.
- Flora of the northwest coast, including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon. Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1915. url .
- Flora of the northwest coast: including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: Press of the New era printing company, 1915. url p. 13.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 21, p. 22, p. 27, p. 28.
- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. By Jacob Bigelow. .. Boston, Cummings, Hilliard, & co., 1824. url p. 385.
- Flowers and ferns in their haunts, by Mabel Osgood Wright with illustrations from photographs by the author and J. Horace McFarland. London, The Macmillan company, 1901. url p. 466.
- Fossil plants: for students of botany and geology / Cambridge: University Press, 1898-1919. url , .
- Fundamentals of botany / by C. Stuart Gager. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., c1916. url p. 377.
- Fundamentals of botany. Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 377.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 110.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardener's handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow gook vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub ed. by J. Harrison Dick... New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.1917 url p. 42.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardeners' handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow good vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.[c1917] url .
- Garden guide; the amateur gardeners' handbook. Profusely illustrated with over 275 teaching plans and diagrams and reproduced photographs, all made expressly for this standard text book. Edited by A. T. De La Mare. New York, A. T. De La Mare[c1920] url , p. 56.
- General index to the flora of Formosa as recorded in all literature up to the publication of Icones plantarum Formosanarum VI = Taiwan shokubutsu somokuroku / [B. Hayata] [Taihoku]: Taiwan Sotokufu Minseibu Shokusankyoku, 1917. url p. 116.
- Grand Rapids flora: a catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns growing without cultivation in the vicinity of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Grand Rapids, Mich., A. Van Dort, 1901. url p. 6.
- Gray's school and field book of botany. Consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume. New York: American Book Co., [c1887] url .
- Growth of plants; twenty years' research at Boyce Thompson Institute. New York, Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1948. url p. 455.
- Hand-list of ferns and fern allies cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1906 url p. 147, p. 147.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Harriman Alaska series. City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1910-1914. url p. 393.
- Harriman Alaska series. vol. I-V, VIII-XIV Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution, 1910-14 url p. 393.
- How to know the mosses; a popular guide to the mosses of the northeastern United States; containing keys to eighty genera and short descriptions of over one hundred and fifty species, with special reference to the distinguis by Elizabeth Marie Dunham, with illustrations by the author. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1916. url , p. 5.
- Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827, together with a particular description of thirty-three species of American oaks and eighteen species of Pinus, with appendices containing a list of the plants introduced by Douglas and an account of h London, W. Wesley & Son, 1914. url , p. 145.
- Journal of Indian botany. Madras: Methodist Pub. House, 1919-1923. url p. 28.
- Journal of applied microscopy and laboratory methods. Rochester, N.Y.: Publication Dept., Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., [1901-1903] url p. 2616.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 19 1999 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 196, figure 4.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 127, p. 127.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 25 1924 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 143, p. 181.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 314.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 16.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , p. 124, p. 127, p. 150.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 24, p. 25.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 16, p. 169, p. 36, p. 51.
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url p. 38, p. 38.
- Minnesota botanical studies. Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. url , p. 246, p. 517.
- Miscellaneous papers on the botany of Michigan, by C. K. Dodge. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Published as a part of the Annual report of the Board of Geological Survey for 1920. Lansing, Mich., Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, State Printers, 1921. url p. 130, p. 19, p. 80.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 12.
- Mycotrophy in plants; lectures on the biology of mycorrhizae and related structures. Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1950. url p. 97.
- Natural areas inventory, Gates County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development,  url p. 147.
- Natural history of New York. Albany: D. Appleton: 1842-1894. url p. 509, p. 509.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 270, p. 270.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 74.
- Notes on western range forbs: Equisetaceae through Fumariaceae / by William A. Dayton. Washington, D.C.: Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1960. url p. 243.
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 1913- url p. 25.
- Our native ferns and their allies: with synoptical descriptions of the American Pteridophyta north of Mexico / by Lucien Marcus Underwood. New York: H. Holt, 1896, c1888. url p. 65.
- Our native ferns and their allies; with synoptical descriptions of the American Pteridophyta north of Mexico, by Lucien Marcus Underwood. New York, H. Holt and company, [c1888] url p. 65.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 17.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 130, p. 355, p. 60, p. 63, p. 88.
- Plant materials of decorative gardening; the woody plants. Urbana, The author, 1921. url p. 3.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url p. 156.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 322, p. 322.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 47.
- Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science. Rochester, N.Y.: The Academy.1889- url p. 241.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 647.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 191.
- Publications in botany / Ottawa: The Museum, 1969- url p. 21.
- Pursh, F. T. Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North america. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years travels and residence in that country /by Frederick Pursh. .. 2 1814 London: Printed for White, Cochrance, and co., 1814. url p. 653.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904-1916. url p. 110, p. 112.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url , , , p. 12, p. 15, p. 52, p. 8.
- Report on the flora of St. Andrews, N.B. / by James Fowler. Ottawa: Printed by S.E. Dawson, 1902 url p. 48.
- Report on the progress and condition of the U.S. National Museum for the year ending June 30. .. / Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum. Washington: G.P.O., 1907-1951. url p. 100, p. 100.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 246, p. 517.
- Roosevelt wild life bulletin. .. of the Roosevelt Life Forest Experiment Station of the New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The University, c1922- url p. 284.
- Sensitive, threatened, and endangered vascular plants of Montana / Peter Lesica, J. Stephen Shelly. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, 1991. url p. 87.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 21.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 268, p. 293.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 193, p. 372, p. 93.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 101, p. 48, p. 5, p. 51.
- The Aleutian islands: their people and natural history (with keys for the identification of the birds and plants) City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1945. url p. 129.
- The American journal of science. 32 1837 New Haven, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University. url p. 23.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 282.
- The Asa Gray bulletin. 2 1953 Ann Arbor, Mich. url p. 19, p. 275.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 54 1940 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url porsild , adams , p. 136, p. 138, p. 172, p. 173, p. 177, p. 20, p. 358, p. 378, p. 382, p. 4, p. 420, p. 5, p. 54, p. 59, p. 600, p. 630, p. 72.
- The Canadian record of science. Montreal, Natural History Society. url p. 459.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1001, p. 580, p. 888.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 241, p. 550, p. 8.
- The Natural history of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. -- Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 148.
- The Nautilus. Melbourne, Fla., etc., American Malacologists, inc., etc. url p. 50.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 132, p. 218, p. 415.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 217.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 151, p. 154.
- The cultivated evergreens; a handbook of the coniferous and most important broad-leaved evergreens planted for ornament in the United States and Canada, edited by L. H. Bailey. London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1923. url p. 396.
- The fern allies of North America north of Mexico, New York, F. A. Stokes company url , , p. 101, p. 74, p. 98, p. viii.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island, and Gardiner's Island / New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1914? url p. 11, p. 230.
- The gypsy moth. Porthetria dispar (Linn.). A report of the work of destroying the insect in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, together with an account of its history and habits both in Massachusetts and Europe. By Edward H. Forbush. .. and Charles H. Fernald. .. Published under the direction of the State Board of Agriculture by authority of the legislature. Boston, Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1896. url p. 322, p. 322.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 118.
- The natural history and topography of Groton, Massachusetts / by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 5.
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 148.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 158, p. 390.
- The plants of Prince Edward Island / Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1985. url p. 46.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 139.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 139.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1181, p. 1933, p. 3596.
- The vascular flora of the eastern Penobscot Bay region, Maine. [Portland, Maine, 1919. url p. 212.
- The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-Barrens: an ecologic investigation / by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Company, 1916. url p. 29.
- Through glade and mead; a contribution to local natural history, Worcester, Mass., Putnam, Davis and Company, [c1894] url , .
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 118, p. 12, p. 207, p. 22, p. 230, p. 287, p. 62, p. 65.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 198.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 15.
- Transactions of the Sapporo Natural History Society. Sapporo, Japan, Sapporo Natural History Society, Hokkaido Imperial University. url .
- Trends and silvicultural significance of upland forest successions in southern New England, New Haven, Yale University, 1928 url p. 67.
- War history of Division of Chemistry. Ottawa[1914-] url p. 90.
- Øllgaard, B. 1990. Lycopodiaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 1+ vol. Berlin etc. Vol. 1, pp. 31--39.
- Øllgaard, B. 1987. A revised classification of the Lycopodiaceae s. lat. Opera Bot. 92: 153--178.
- Øllgaard, B. 1989. Index of the Lycopodiaceae. Biol. Skr. 34: 1--135.
- Wagner, W. H. Jr. and J. M. Beitel. 1992. Generic classification of modern North American Lycopodiaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 676--686.
- Wagner, F. S. 1992. Cytological problems in Lycopodium sens. lat. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 718--729.
- Wagner, W. H. Jr. 1993. A new combination for a North American lycopod. Novon 3: 305.
- Hickey, R. J. 1977. The Lycopodium obscurum complex in North America. Amer. Fern J. 67: 45--49.
- Wagner, W. H. Jr., J. M. Beitel, and R. C. Moran. 1989. Lycopodium hickeyi: A new species of North American clubmoss. Amer. Fern J. 79: 119--121.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644346
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17032
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13728279
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1169243-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 407096
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17032
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 147497-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPLYC010P0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LYOB
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 47854
- Warren H. Wagner Jr. & Joseph M. Beitel "Lycopodiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lycopodium". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 294.590 meters (966.503 feet), Standard Deviation = 231.950 based on 447 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]