Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Tree Groundpine, Prickly Tree Club-Moss, Treelike Clubmoss
Common Names in French:
, on rock, or epiphytic. Roots
emerging near origin
, or growing through cortex and emergent some distance
from origin. Horizontal stems present or absent, mainly protostelic, in some species becoming actino- or plectostelic, on substrate surface or subterranean
, or forming stolons. Upright shoots
or branched, usually conspicuously leafy at least at base
; abscising gemmae formed by reduced lateral
shoots. Lateral shoots present or absent, simple or branched, branching pattern
dichotomous and sometimes pseudomonopodial; leaves uniform
or trimorphic. Upright and lateral shoots round
or flat in cross
; leaves on subterranean parts flat, appressed
, nonphotosynthetic, and scalelike; leaves on aerial
parts appressed, ascending
, or spreading
, with 1 central unbranched vein
, needlelike to lanceolate to ovate
to dense and imbricate, with or without basal and/or mucilage canals. Strobili sessile or stalked
, upright, nodding
, or pendent. Sporangia solitary, adaxial
near leaf base or axillary
leaves (sporophylls) unmodified and photosynthetic to much modified, nonphotosynthetic, reduced, and aggregated in strobili; sporangia reniform to globose
, thick-walled with hundreds
of spores, outer walls variously modified. Spores all 1 kind, trilete, thick-walled, surfaces pitted
to small-grooved, rugulate, or reticulate
. Gametophytes subterranean and nonphotosynthetic or surficial
Genera 10--15, species 350--400 (7 genera, 27 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
The Lycopodiaceae are an extremely diverse , ancient family . The family may contain even more than the estimated 400 species because the tropical members and the very large genus Phlegmariurus are still poorly known. The relationships among genera of Lycopodiaceae are not well understood because large evolutionary gaps exist among most genera. Some of the genera, notably Diphasiastrum, Huperzia, and Lycopodiella, exhibit extensive interspecific hybridization, which has caused much taxonomic confusion in the past. Differences in expressions of many of the generic characters are subtle, and some of the characters are microscopic.
emerging from point
on underside of main stems
. Horizontal stems on substrate surface or subterranean
, long-creeping. Upright shoots
along horizontal stem, 5--16 mm diam., round
or flat in cross
, unbranched or with 1--4 lateral
. Leaves not imbricate, linear
to linear-lanceolate; leaves on horizontal stems scattered, appressed
, membranous; leaves on lateral branchlets mostly 6-ranked or more, monomorphic
with few exceptions, appressed, ascending
entire to dentate
branchlets and gemmae absent. Strobili single and sessile or multiple
, apex blunt
to acute; peduncle, when present, conspicuously leafy; sporophylls extremely reduced, much shorter than peduncle or stem leaves. Sporangia reniform
. Spores reticulate
, sides at equator convex
acute. Gametophytes nonphotosynthetic, mycorrhizal, subterranean, flat and irregularly button-shaped, with ring
meristem around circumference. x
Species 15--25: mainly temperate and subarctic .
In striking contrast to Diphasiastrum, Huperzia, and Lycopodiella, interspecific hybridization is practically unknown in Lycopodium. Many of the species now recognized in Lycopodium have been segregated from Lycopodium clavatum, L. annotinum, and L. jussiaei Desvaux ex Poiret. The three groups given in the key below should probably be treated as subgenera .
Species Lycopodium dendroideum
Horizontal stems subterranean . Upright shoots treelike, many branched, branchlets numerous and strongly differentiated; annual bud constrictions absent; leaves spreading , pale green below lateral branchlets, prickly needlelike, 3.5--4 X 0.9--1 mm. Lateral branchlets round in cross section , 5--8 mm diam.; annual bud constrictions inconspicuous; leaves spreading to ascending , pale green, in 6 ranks , 2 upperside, 2 lateral, and 2 underside, equal in size, linear , 2.4--5.5 X 0.5--1.2 mm; margins entire; apex acuminate, lacking hair tip . Strobili sessile, 1--7 on tip of upright shoot, 12--55 mm. Sporophylls 3.5 X 3.5 mm, apex short, acute, abruptly narrowing. 2 n = 68. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Dry woodlands and second-growth shrubby areas; 50--1800 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,916 meters (0 to 9,567 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Dumortier, 1829
- Palisot de Beauvois ex Mirbel, in Lamarck & Mirbel, 1802
- club mosses
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Club-moss [Greek lykos, wolf, and pous, podes, foot; in reference to the resemblance of the branch tips to a wolf's paw]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Lycopodium dendroideum Michx.
- Specific epithet: dendroideum - Michx.
- Genus: Lycopodium () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Club-moss [Greek lykos, wolf, and pous, podes, foot; in reference to the resemblance of the branch tips to a wolf's paw]
- Family: Lycopodiaceae () - Palisot de Beauvois ex Mirbel, in Lamarck & Mirbel, 1802 - club mosses
- Order: Lycopodiales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Class: Lycopodiopsida () - Bartl.
- Infraphylum: Lycophytae () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Lycophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Lepidotis dendroidea (Michx.) P. Beauv. • Lycopodium obscurum f. dendroideum (Michx.) H.L.Blomq. & Correll • Lycopodium obscurum Linnaeus var. dendroideum (Michaux) D. C. Eaton • Lycopodium obscurum var. dendroideum (Michx.) D. C. eat. • Lycopodium obscurum var. hybridum Farw.
Publishing author : Michx. Publication : Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 2: 282 1803 [19 Mar 1803]
Members of the genus Lycopodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 51 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. alpinum (Alpine Club Moss) · L. annotinum (Clubmoss) · L. annotinum f. groen;andicum (Clubmoss) · L. annotinum pungens (Stiff Clubmoss) · L. apodum (Meadow Spike Moss) · L. argenteum (Northern Sennet) · L. carinatum (Club Moss) · L. cernua (Lycopodium) · L. circinale (Blackfin Barracuda) · L. clavatum (Common Club Moss) · L. clavatum contiguum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum f. brevipedunculatum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum f. incurvum (Common Club Moss) · L. clavatum f. robustinus (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum var. aristatum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. clavatum var. clavatum (Running Clubmoss) · L. clavatum var. raddianum (Staghorn Club-Moss) · L. complanatum (Plants) · L. complanatum complanatum (American Clubmoss) · L. complanatum f. canadense (Christmas Green) · L. dendroideum (Tree Groundpine) · L. deuterodensum (Bushy Clubmoss) · L. digitatum (Fan Club-Moss) · L. douglasii (Douglas' Spikemoss) · L. fastigiatum (Mountain Clubmoss) · L. habereri (Haberer's Clubmoss) · L. hickeyi (Hickey's Clubmoss) · L. issleri (Issler's Clubmoss) · L. lagopus (One-Cone Clubmoss) · L. longifolium (Pacific Threadfin) · L. lycopodiella (Lycopodiella) · L. mirabile (Thread-Fishes) · L. nudum (Clubmosses) · L. obscurum (Ground Pine) · L. obscurum f. dendroideum (Flat-Branch Tree Club-Moss) · L. obscurum f. foliaceum (Flat-Branch Tree Club-Moss) · L. obscurum f. parvispicatum (Ground Pine) · L. phlegmaria (Queensland Tassel-Fern) · L. proniflorum (Mullet) · L. pungens (Stiff Clubmoss) · L. sabinaefolium sitchense (Sitka Clubmoss) · L. sabinifolium (Ground-Fir) · L. scariosum (Spreading Clubmoss) · L. sitchense (Alaskan Clubmoss) · L. tristachyum (Deep-Root Clubmoss) · L. venustulum (Hairtip Clubmoss) · L. volubile (Climbing Clubmoss) · L. x habereri (Hybrid) · L. × issleri (Issler's Clubmoss) · L. x zeilleri (Zeiller's Clubmoss) · L. zeilleri (Deeproot Clubmoss)
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- Hickey, R. J. 1977. The Lycopodium obscurum complex in North America. Amer. Fern J. 67: 45--49.
- Wagner, W. H. Jr., J. M. Beitel, and R. C. Moran. 1989. Lycopodium hickeyi: A new species of North American clubmoss. Amer. Fern J. 79: 119--121.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 22, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 29 providers.
- "Lycopodium dendroideum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644344
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17027
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13728731
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:323855-2
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17027
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 147306-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPLYC010B0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LYOBH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 48641
- Warren H. Wagner Jr. & Joseph M. Beitel "Lycopodiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lycopodium". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lycopodium dendroideum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 332.380 meters (1,090.486 feet), Standard Deviation = 360.920 based on 5,215 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]