Lonicera japonica is an extremely vigorous vine which grows up through the canopy of trees , smothering and ultimately killing the host tree. It is shade and drought tolerant , though it needs full to partial sunlight to grow successfully. L. japonica is beneficial as winter forage for white tail deer and is used for this purpose by wildlife managers. Birds and cotton-tailed rabbits also eat the seeds and leaves of the vine. It provides a habitat cover of twisted vines for birds and small mammals. Landscapers use it because of its fragrant smell. It is considered a valuable medical herb in China, where it is used to treat chicken pox and to maintain human vascular homeostasis .
- Japanese honeysuckle was introduced to the U.S. in the early to mid-1800's as an ornamental plant, for erosion control, and for wildlife forage and cover . Its highly fragrant flowers provide a tiny drop of honey-flavored nectar enjoyed by children. (Ref. 314573)
- The flowers of this highly invasive, imported vine have a strong , sweet aroma. Notice how the flower buds bloom white the first day. After being pollinated, the flowers turn yellow and the stamens wilt. Some plants , like this one, have pink buds. Birds spread the seeds when they eat the shiny black berries in the fall .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Jin Yin Hua, Ren Dong
Common Names in English:
Chinese Honeysuckle, Hall's Honeysuckle, Halls Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle, Madreselva
Common Names in French:
Clématite Du Japon
Common Names in German:
Japanisches Geißblatt, Japanisches Geissblatt
Common Names in Japanese:
Nindo, Sui-Kazura, Suikazura
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
žimolost Japonskaja, жимолост японская
Common Names in Spanish:
Species Lonicera japonica
Japanese honeysuckle is a perennial
that climbs by twisting
its stems around vertical
structures, including limbs and trunks
and small trees
. Leaves are oblong
, sometimes lobed
have short stalks
, and occur in pairs along the stem. In southern
and mid-Atlantic states, Japanese honeysuckle often remains evergreen
– its leaves remain attached through the winter. In colder
northern climates, the leaves may fall
off after exposure to prolonged
. Flowers are tubular
, with five fused petals,
white to pink, turning yellow with age, very fragrant, and occur
in pairs along the stem at leaf junctures
. Stems and leaves are sometimes
covered with fine, soft hairs
. Japanese honeysuckle blooms
April through July and sometimes into October. Small black fruits
in autumn, each containing 2-3 oval to oblong, dark
brown seeds about 1/4 inch
L. japonica is an evergreen in its southern range and semi-evergreen in its northern range. Stems are hollow with peeling reddish-brown bark and usually 2 to 3 m long when developed. Leaves are 4 to 8 cm long and ovate in shape . L. japonica produces white to yellowish tubular flowers that are 2.5 to 5 cm long and black berries that contain 2 to 12 seeds. The seeds are 2 to 3 mm long, ovate in shape, and dark brown to black in colour . Flowers are produced during summer and “fruit mature and are dispersed during autumn in eastern United States" (Hidayati et al. 2000). The blooming period extends from April to December in Georgia (Andrews 1919), late May to October in Kentucky (Nuzzo 1997), May to June in Illinois (Mohlenbrock 1986), and June in Michigan (Nuzzo 1997).
ID Features: A twining vine or groundcover. Stems pubescent. Evergreen or semievergreen tendencies. Flowers white, fading to yellow. Flowers fragrant.
Habit: A twining , climbing vine or prostrate and trailing semi-evergreen groundcover. Tends to be a weedy and rampant grower.
Flowers: Flowers are white and fade to yellow. Bloom time is mid-June. Flowers are fragrant. Relatively showy in full bloom. • Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, pale yellow, white
Seeds: Fruit: Small, black fruit. Not really of any ornamental significance.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Opposite, simple leaves. Evergreen , semievergreen, or deciduous, depending on the climate. Leaf shape is ovate . Leaves are 1.25" to 3.25" long. Leaf color is a dark, lustrous green. Young leaves and stems are pubescent . • Fall foliage: Leaves turn a bronze or purple.
Growth Rate: Vigorous. • Size: Can spread or climb 15' to 30' feet. As groundcover, it usually doesn't get much over 2' tall.
Landscape Uses: Barrier . Erosion control. Screen . Groundcover. Useful on banks. Difficult sites. For fragrance of flowers. • Liabilities: A rampant and weedy grower needing to be contained in some circumstances. Not evergreen in zones 6 or colder.
invader, Japanese honeysuckle thrives in a wide variety
, wetlands, barrens
, and all
types of disturbed
L. japonica is found in a variety of habitats, including fields, forest edges and openings, disturbed woods, and floodplains . It is shade and drought tolerant , though it needs full to partial sunlight to grow successfully. L. japonica is still planted in gardens and along roadsides for landscaping purposes. It is hardy to zone 5.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Invasive: In North America, Japanese honeysuckle has few natural
enemies which allows it to spread
widely and out-compete native
species. Its evergreen
nature gives it an added
advantage over native species
in many areas. Shrubs
and young trees
can be killed by girdling when vines
twist tightly around stems and
, cutting off the flow
of water through the plant. Dense growths
of honeysuckle covering vegetation can gradually kill plants
sunlight from reaching their leaves. Vigorous root
helps Japanese honeysuckle spread and displace neighboring native
L. japonica competes with natives for light and nutrients . It outcompetes natives by spreading rapidly and completely covering and toppling small trees and shrubs in the process . This prevents the understory and small trees from developing, causing a reduction in forest understory diversity. The newly opened understory causes L. japonica to spread rapidly and provide habitat to other invasives, such as Hedera helix (English ivy) and Pueraria montana (kudzu).
Several effective methods of control are available for Japanese honeysuckle, including chemical and non-chemical, depending on the extent of the infestation and available time and labor.
- Manual and Mechanical. For small patches, repeated pulling of entire vines and root systems may be effective. Hand pull seedlings and young plants when the soil is moist, holding low on the stem to remove the whole plant along with its roots. Monitor frequently and remove any new plants. Cut and remove twining vines to prevent them from girdling and killing shrubs and other plants. An effective method for removal of patches of honeysuckle covering the ground is to lift up and hold a portion of the vine mass with a rake and have a chain saw operator cut the stems low to the ground. Mowing large patches of honeysuckle may be useful if repeated regularly but is most effective when combined with herbicide application (see below). Mow twice a year, first in mid-July and again in mid-September. Plants can also be grubbed out using a pulaski or similar digging tool, taking care to remove all roots and runners . Burning removes above ground vegetation but does not kill the underground rhizomes, which will continue to sprout. In certain situations, tethered goats have been used to remove honeysuckle growth, but must be monitored to prevent their escape to the wild where they would become an added ecological threat .
- Chemical. In moderate cold climates, Japanese honeysuckle leaves continue to photosynthesize long after most other plants have lost their leaves. This allows for application of herbicides when many native species are dormant . However, for effective control with herbicides, healthy green leaves must be present at application time and temperatures must be sufficient for plant activity. Several systemic herbicides (e.g. , glyphosate and triclopyr) move through the plant to the roots when applied to the leaves or stems and have been used effectively on Japanese honeysuckle.
- Following label guidelines, apply a 2.5% rate of glyphosate (e.g., Rodeo® for wetlands; Roundup® for uplands ) mixed with water and an appropriate surfactant, to foliage from spring through fall . Alternatively, apply a 2% concentration of triclopyr (e.g., Garlon 3A) plus water to foliage, thoroughly wetting the leaves but not to the point of drip-off. A coarse , low-pressure spray should be used. Repeat applications may be needed. Treatment in the fall, when many non-target plants are going dormant, is best. Also, a 25% glyphosate or triclopyr solution mixed with water can be applied to cut stem surfaces any time of year as long as the ground is not frozen.
- Biological. No biological control agents are currently available for Japanese honeysuckle.
Growth and spread
of Japanese honeysuckle is through vegetative
growth) and sexual (seed) means. It produces
long vegetative runners
that develop roots
where stem and leaf junctions (nodes) come in
contact with moist soil. Underground stems (rhizomes) help to establish
and spread the plant locally. Long distance
is by birds
and other wildlife that readily consume the fruits and defecate
seeds at various distances from the parent plant.
L. japonica reproduces vegetatively and by seed. Seeds are spread mostly by birds, which ingest the berries and excrete the seeds. L. japonica plants spread by way of aboveground runners that root at the nodes. The plants are pollinated by a variety of insects, such as bumblebees, butterflies, and especially hawkmoths, but in some areas may produce few fruits and seeds (Larson et al. 2002). Seeds require cold stratification to overcome dormancy (Hidayati et al. 2000). L. japonica produces 2 to 12 seeds per berry.
L. japonica has an extended growing season , owing to its evergreen nature.
Culture: Easy to grow. Full sun to partial shade. Tolerant of difficult growing sites. Adaptable to most soils.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Order: Dipsacales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Dipsacanae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Caprifolium japonicum (Thunb.) Dum. Cours. • Lonicera japonica var. chinensis (P. W. Wats.) Baker • Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet
Publishing author : Thunb. ex Murray Publication : Systema Vegetabilium 1784 (Jul. 1784)
Members of the genus Lonicera
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 116 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
L. acuminata (Honeysuckle) · L. albiflora (Western White Honeysuckle) · L. arizonica (Arizona Honeysuckle) · L. bella (Bell's Honeysuckle) · L. caerulea (Sweetberry Honeysuckle) · L. caerulea var. cauriana (Bluefly Honeysuckle) · L. caerulea var. edulis (Bearberry Honeysuckle) · L. caerulea var. edulis 'Kamchatka' (Bearberry Honeysuckle) · L. canadensis (American Fly Honeysuckle) · L. caprifolium (Honeysuckle) · L. chrysantha (Honeysuckle) · L. ciliosa (Orange Honeysuckle) · L. conjugialis (Double Honeysuckle) · L. dioica (Limber Honeysuckle) · L. dioica var. dioica (Limber Honeysuckle) · L. etrusca (Etruscan Honeysuckle) · L. ferdinandii (Honeysuckle) · L. flava (Yellow Honeysuckle) · L. fragrantissima (January Jasmine) · L. gracilipes (Honeysuckle) · L. henryi (Henrys Honeysuckle Lonicera Henryi) · L. henryi 'Copper Beauty' (Henrys Honeysuckle) · L. hildebrandiana (Giant Burmese Honeysuckle) · L. hirsuta (Hairy Honeysuckle) · L. hispidula (California Honeysuckle) · L. hispidula var. hispidula (Pink Honeysuckle) · L. hispidula var. vacillans (Pink Honeysuckle) · L. interrupta (Chaparral Honeysuckle) · L. involucrata (Bearberry Honeysuckle) · L. involucrata var. involucrata (Twinberry Honeysuckle) · L. involucrata var. ledebourii (Twinberry Honeysuckle) · L. japonica (Chinese Honeysuckle) · L. japonica 'Aureoreticulata' (Chinese Honeysuckle) · L. japonica 'Halliana' (Hall's Honeysuckle) · L. japonica 'Hall's Prolific' (Hall's Prolific Japanese Honeysuckle) · L. japonica 'Purpurea' (Purple-Leaf Japanese Honeysuckle) · L. kamsachatica 'Blue Velvet' (Honeysuckle) · L. koehneana (Honeysuckle) · L. korolkowii (Blueleaf Honeysuckle) · L. maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) · L. maximowiczii var. sachalinensis (Sakhalin Honeysuckle) · L. minutiflora (Smallflower Honeysuckle) · L. morrowii (Morrow Honeysuckle) · L. nitida (Box Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Baggesen's Gold' (Baggesen's Gold Boxleaf Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Ernest Wilson' (Box Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Lemon Beauty' (Box Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Maigrun' (Box Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Red Tips' (Box Honeysuckle) · L. nitida 'Silver Beauty' (Box Honeysuckle) · L. notha (Honeysuckle) · L. oblongifolia (Swamp Fly Honeysuckle) · L. oblongifolia var. oblongifolia (Swamp Fly Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum (European Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Belgica' (Dutch Woodbine) · L. periclymenum 'Graham Thomas' (Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Harlequin' (Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'La Gasnérie' (Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Manul' (Berries Jubilee Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Monul' (Berries Jubilee ® Woodbine Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Serotina' (Honeysuckle) · L. periclymenum 'Winchester' (Honeysuckle) · L. pileata (Privet Honeysuckle) · L. praeflorens (Honeysuckle) · L. reticulata (Grape Honeysuckle) · L. ruprechtiana (Manchurian Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Sulphurea' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens var. hirsutula (Trumpet Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens var. sempervirens (Trumpet Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Alabama Crimson' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Blanche Sandman' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Cedar Lane' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'John Clayton' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Magnifica' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Major Wheeler' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. sempervirens 'Manifich' (Coral Honeysuckle) · L. standishii (Bush Honeysuckle) · L. subspicata (Southern Honeysuckle) · L. subspicata ata (Santa Barbara Honeysuckle) · L. subspicata var. denudata (Santa Barbara Honeysuckle) · L. subspicata var. johnstonii (Johnston's Honeysuckle) · L. subspicata var. subspicata (Southern Honeysuckle) · L. syringantha (Lilac-Flowering Honeysuckle) · L. syringantha var. wolfii (Lilac-Flowering Honeysuckle) · L. tatarica (Bush Honeysuckle) · L. tatarica 'Arnold Red' (Arnold Red Tatarian Honeysuckle) · L. tatarica 'Arnold's Red' (Bush Honeysuckle) · L. tatarica 'Honeyrose' (Bush Honeysuckle) · L. tragophylla (Chinese Honeysuckle) · L. utahensis (Utah Honeysuckle) · L. villosa (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle) · L. villosa var. calvescens (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle) · L. villosa var. fulleri (Fuller's Honeysuckle) · L. villosa var. solonis (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle) · L. villosa var. tonsa (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle) · L. villosa var. villosa (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle) · L. xylosteoides (Fly Honeysuckle) · L. xylosteum (Dwarf Honeysuckle) · L. xylosteum L. 'Emerald Mound' (European Fly Honeysuckle)
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- Dillenberg L.R., D.F. Whigham, A.H. Teramura, I.N. Forseth. 1993. Effects of below- and aboveground competition from the vines Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia on the growth of the tree host Liquadambar stryraciflua. Oecologia 93:48-54.
- Fernald, M. L. 1989. Grays Manual of Botany. Biosystematics, Floristic and Phylogeny Series. Volume 2. T. R. Dudley, Editor. Dioscorides Press. Portland, OR. 1,632 pp.
- Gleason H. A. and A. Cronquist. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanic Garden, New York, NY. 937 pp.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 21, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 8 providers.
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- Regehr, D. L. and D. R. Frey. 1988. Selective control of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica). Weed Technology 2:139-143.
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- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657170
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-35283
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:246498-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 22588
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35283
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 148848-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCPR030G0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: NIJA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 11847
- Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group. Least Wanted http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/loja1.htm [back]
- Mean = 212.850 meters (698.327 feet), Standard Deviation = 437.970 based on 1,320 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]