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Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Litsea, May Chang, Mountain-Pepper, Pheasant-Pepper, Sambal
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Khao Khinh, Máng Tang
to tall trees
or rarely deciduous ( Cassytha a parasitic vine
with leaves reduced to scales
), usually aromatic
. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled
or opposite, simple
, without stipules, petiolate
. Leaf blade
: unlobed (unlobed or lobed
in Sassafras ), margins
entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites
) in axils of main lateral
veins (in Cinnamomum ) . Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads
cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual
, bisexual only, or staminate
on different plants
, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube
, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid
, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea ) ; stamens (3-) 9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands
2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves
; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile
or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent
tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent
. Seed 1; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 50, species 2000-3000 (9 genera, 13 species in the flora ) : pantropical , a few species also in subtropical and temperate regions
Cassytha is sometimes placed in its own family , Cassythaceae; it is here retained in Lauraceae.
], deciduous [or evergreen
]. Leaves alternate, not aromatic
. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, rarely with 3 primary
veins, leathery; surfaces glabrous
or variously pubescent
; domatia absent. Inflorescences appearing with or before new leaves, axillary
, pseudoumbels, subtended by decussate bracts. Flowers unisexual
on different plants
; tepals deciduous, yellow, green, or white, equal, glabrous. Staminate flowers
: stamens 9 (or 12) ; anthers
4-locular, 4-valved, introrse
. Pistillate flowers: staminodes 9 (or 12) ; ovary globose
. Drupe red, globose, seated in small, single-rimmed cupule.
Species ca. 400: North America, Mexico, Central America, mostly in Asia.
Mexico has four species of Litsea, one of which extends to Costa Rica in Central America. Litsea merits revision and, as accepted here, it is probably polyphyletic. It is very similar to Lindera and best recognized by its 4-locular anthers (2-locular in Lindera ).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Order: Laurales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lauranae () - (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Benzoin cubeba (Lour.) Hatus. • Laurus Cubeba • Laurus cubeba Lour. • Persea Cubeba
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Litsea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 340.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url .
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 248.
- Conservation and sustainable management of trees, report of the third regional workshop, held at Army Hotel, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August, 1997 WCMC url p. 121.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 24 2004 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 173.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 133.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 76.
- The Philippine journal of science. 15 1919 Manila. url p. 235.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 25, 2007:
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670228
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-506204
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13763988
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:465621-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400267
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506204
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 465621-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LICU2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 46560