Common Names in English:
to tall trees
or rarely deciduous ( Cassytha a parasitic vine
with leaves reduced to scales
), usually aromatic
. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled
or opposite, simple
, without stipules, petiolate
. Leaf blade
: unlobed (unlobed or lobed
in Sassafras ), margins
entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites
) in axils of main lateral
veins (in Cinnamomum ) . Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads
cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual
, bisexual only, or staminate
on different plants
, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube
, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid
, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea ) ; stamens (3-) 9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands
2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves
; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile
or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent
tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent
. Seed 1; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 50, species 2000-3000 (9 genera, 13 species in the flora ) : pantropical , a few species also in subtropical and temperate regions
Cassytha is sometimes placed in its own family , Cassythaceae; it is here retained in Lauraceae.
], deciduous [or evergreen
]. Leaves alternate, not aromatic
. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, rarely with 3 primary
veins, leathery; surfaces glabrous
or variously pubescent
; domatia absent. Inflorescences appearing with or before new leaves, axillary
, pseudoumbels, subtended by decussate bracts. Flowers unisexual
on different plants
; tepals deciduous, yellow, green, or white, equal, glabrous. Staminate flowers
: stamens 9 (or 12) ; anthers
4-locular, 4-valved, introrse
. Pistillate flowers: staminodes 9 (or 12) ; ovary globose
. Drupe red, globose, seated in small, single-rimmed cupule.
Species ca. 400: North America, Mexico, Central America, mostly in Asia.
Mexico has four species of Litsea, one of which extends to Costa Rica in Central America. Litsea merits revision and, as accepted here, it is probably polyphyletic. It is very similar to Lindera and best recognized by its 4-locular anthers (2-locular in Lindera ).
Species Litsea aestivalis
Shrubs , to 3 m. Branches glabrous or sparsely pubescent , with typical zigzag shape . Leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly elliptic , 1.5-4 × 0.4-1.5 cm, mostly glabrous; surfaces abaxially frequently with spreading hairs along base of midrib . Inflorescences in axils of deciduous bracts, flowers in 4-5-flowered pseudoumbels. Flowers: ca. 6 mm diam., from exposed overwintering buds; tepals yellow. Staminate flowers : stamens 9; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: staminodes 9; style slender; stigma capitate. Drupe red, ca. 10 mm. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 12-15' tall.
Within basins of limesinks or other depressional ponds or Carolina bays ; 10-200 m .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 25 meters (81 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Order: Laurales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lauranae () - (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Glabraria geniculata (Marsh.) Britt. • Glabraria geniculata (Walter) Britton • Laurus aestivalis Linnaeus • Litsea geniculata (Walter) G. Nicholson
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Litsea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 325.
- A survey of natural areas in Brunswick County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 80, p. 88.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645145
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18206
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729166
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:465491-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18206
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 465491-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDLAU08010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GLGE
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38691
- Henk van der Werff "Lauraceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Henk van der Werff "Litsea". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Litsea aestivalis". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 32.180 based on 33 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]