Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ti Hsueh, Tzu Tan, Tzu Ts´ao, Ya Hsien Ts´ao
Common Names in English:
European Gromwell, Common Gromwell, European Stoneseed, Gromwell, Pearl Gromwell
Common Names in French:
Grémil Officinal, Millet D´amour, Perlière
Common Names in German:
Echter Steinsame, Gebraäuchlicher Steinsame
Common Names in Italian:
Erba-Perla Maggiore, Migliasole, Miglio De Sole
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Mijo De Sol
, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, short strigose
. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal
or flowers solitary, bracteate
. Calyx 5-parted nearly to base
, slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla white, yellow, or violet, actinomorphic
, or longitudinally crispate
; limb usually campanulate
, 5-parted; lobes
. Stamens included
very short; anthers
oblong-linear, apex obtuse
. Style filiform
, not exserted; stigma entire or indistinctly 2-cleft, capitate. Gynobase
white or gray, ovoid
, shiny or tuberculate
; attachment scar
at base adaxially.
About 50 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America; five species in China.
Species Lithospermum officinale
Herbs perennial ; most parts short strigose . Roots containing little purple dye when young. Stems usually single, erect , to 1 m tall, frequently much branched at apex. Leaves sessile, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-8 × 0.5-1.5 cm, base cuneate to attenuate, apex short acuminate; veins prominent abaxially, more densely strigose along veins. Inflorescences on upper stems and branches, to 15 cm in fruit; bracts similar to leaves but smaller. Calyx lobes linear , ca. 5-7 mm in fruit. Corolla white or pale yellow, 4-6 mm; tube ca. 2 × as long as limb; throat with 5 trapeziform, densely short pubescent appendages ca. 0.4 mm; lobes of limb erect, oblong-ovate, ca. 1.5 mm, margin undulate . Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments ca. 0.4 mm; anthers ca. 1.2 mm. Stigma capitate. Nutlets white or yellowish brown, ovoid , ca. 3 mm, smooth , shiny, concave adaxially with center line forming a longitudinal groove . Fl. and fr. Jun-Aug. 2n = 28, 56. [source]
Meadows on slopes , forest margins ..
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Lithospermum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 27 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. arvense arvense (Field Gromwell) · L. californicum (California Gromwell) · L. calycosum (Chinati Gromwell) · L. canescens (Gromwell) · L. caroliniense (Carolina Gromwell) · L. caroliniense var. caroliniense (Carolina Puccoon) · L. caroliniense var. croceum (Carolina Puccoon) · L. cobrense (Mountain Gromwell) · L. confine (Arizona Gromwell) · L. diffusum (Scrambling Gromwell) · L. erythrorhizon (Lithospermum) · L. incisum (Fringed Gromwell) · L. latifolium (American Gromwell) · L. matamorense (Rough Gromwell) · L. mirabile (San Antonio Gromwell) · L. multiflorum (Many-Flowered Gromwell) · L. obtusifolium (Rounded-Leaf Gromwell) · L. officinale (European Gromwell) · L. parksii (Parks Stoneseed) · L. parksii I.M.Johnst. var. parksii I.M.Johnst. (Parks' Gromwell) · L. parksii I.M.Johnst. var. rugulosum I.M.Johnst. (Parks' Gromwell) · L. parksii var. parksii (Parks' Stoneseed) · L. parksii var. rugulosum (Parks Stoneseed) · L. purpureocoeruleum (Gromwell) · L. ruderale (Columbia Puccoon) · L. tuberosum (Tuberous Gromwell) · L. viride (American Bugleweed)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2654762
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-31952
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 1039463
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:99462-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 22416
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 31952
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBOR0L0C0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LIOF
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 47532
- Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Boraginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lithospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 342. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lithospermum officinale". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 343. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 152.540 meters (500.459 feet), Standard Deviation = 177.330 based on 4,135 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]