- This pretty yellow-orange flowered plant is in the Forget-Me-Not Family . The genus name means "stoneseed."
Common Names in English:
Gromwell, Hoary Gromwell, Hoary Puccoon, Indian Paint, Indian-Paint, Puccoon, Yellow Puccoon
, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, short strigose
. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal
or flowers solitary, bracteate
. Calyx 5-parted nearly to base
, slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla white, yellow, or violet, actinomorphic
, or longitudinally crispate
; limb usually campanulate
, 5-parted; lobes
. Stamens included
very short; anthers
oblong-linear, apex obtuse
. Style filiform
, not exserted; stigma entire or indistinctly 2-cleft, capitate. Gynobase
white or gray, ovoid
, shiny or tuberculate
; attachment scar
at base adaxially.
About 50 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America; five species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: gold, yellow-orange, yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Batrachium circinatum (Sibthorp) Reichenb. • Batrachium circinatum subrigidum< /i> (W. Drew) A. & D. Löve • Batrachium longirostre (Godr.) F. W. Schultz • Batschia Canescens • Batschia canescens Michx. • Ranunculus amphibius James • Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus Withering P. P. • Ranunculus aquatilis var. longirostris (Godr.) Lawson • Ranunculus aquatilis var. subrigidus (W. Drew) Breitung • Ranunculus circinatus auct. non Sibthorp • Ranunculus circinatus var. subrigidus (W. Drew) L. Benson • Ranunculus subrigidus W. Drew • Ranunculus usneoides Greene
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Lithospermum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 27 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. arvense arvense (Field Gromwell) · L. californicum (California Gromwell) · L. calycosum (Chinati Gromwell) · L. canescens (Gromwell) · L. caroliniense (Carolina Gromwell) · L. caroliniense var. caroliniense (Carolina Puccoon) · L. caroliniense var. croceum (Carolina Puccoon) · L. cobrense (Mountain Gromwell) · L. confine (Arizona Gromwell) · L. diffusum (Scrambling Gromwell) · L. erythrorhizon (Lithospermum) · L. incisum (Fringed Gromwell) · L. latifolium (American Gromwell) · L. matamorense (Rough Gromwell) · L. mirabile (San Antonio Gromwell) · L. multiflorum (Many-Flowered Gromwell) · L. obtusifolium (Rounded-Leaf Gromwell) · L. officinale (European Gromwell) · L. parksii (Parks Stoneseed) · L. parksii I.M.Johnst. var. parksii I.M.Johnst. (Parks' Gromwell) · L. parksii I.M.Johnst. var. rugulosum I.M.Johnst. (Parks' Gromwell) · L. parksii var. parksii (Parks' Stoneseed) · L. parksii var. rugulosum (Parks Stoneseed) · L. purpureocoeruleum (Gromwell) · L. ruderale (Columbia Puccoon) · L. tuberosum (Tuberous Gromwell) · L. viride (American Bugleweed)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2654755
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-31945
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13749730
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:117981-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 105396
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 31945
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBOR0L030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BACA7
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 25011
- Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Boraginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lithospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 342. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]