Common Names in English:
California Chestnut Oak, Cutleaf Tanbark Oak, Live Oak, Peach Oak, Tan-Oak, Tanbark-Oak, Tanoak
or rarely shrubs
, monoecious, evergreen
or deciduous. Stipules usually early deciduous. Leaves alternate, sometimes false-whorled in Cyclobalanopsis. Inflorescences unisexual
or androgynous with female cupules at the base
of an otherwise male inflorescence. Male inflorescences a pendulous head
or pendulous catkin, sometimes branched; flowers in dense cymules
. Male flower: sepals 4-6(-9), scalelike, connate
; petals absent; filaments
or versatile, opening by longitudinal
slits; with or without a rudimentary
pistil. Female inflorescences of 1-7 or more flowers subtended individually or collectively by a cupule formed from numerous
fused bracts, arranged individually or in small groups along an axis or at base of an androgynous inflorescence or on a separate axis. Female flower: perianth 1-7 or more; pistil 1; ovary inferior, 3-6(-9) -loculed; style and carpels as many as locules; placentation axile
; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a nut. Seed usually solitary by abortion
(but may be more than 1 in Castanea, Castanopsis, Fagus, and Formanodendron), without endosperm; embryo large.
Seven to 12 genera (depending on interpretation) and 900-1000 species: worldwide except for tropical and S Africa; seven genera and 294 species (163 endemic, at least three introduced ) in China.
Many species are important timber trees. Nuts of Fagus, Castanea, and of most Castanopsis species are edible, and oil is extracted from nuts of Fagus. Nuts of most species of this family contain copious amounts of water soluble tannin. Members of the Fagaceae are the main element of both broad-leaved evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests from 500-3200 m. 
buds present, ovate
, all scales
imbricate. Leaves: stipules prominent
on new growth, persistent
around buds. Leaf blade
entire or obscurely toothed
to serrate, secondary veins unbranched, ± parallel, extending to margin. Inflorescences staminate
and androgynous, axillary
, often appearing terminal and branched by reduction of leaves, spicate
; androgynous inflorescences with pistillate
cupules/flowers toward base
and staminate flowers
distally. Staminate flowers: sepals distinct
; stamens 12(-18 or more) typically surrounding indurated
covered with silky
. Pistillate flower 1 per cupule; sepals distinct; carpels and styles 3. Fruits: maturation
in 2d year following pollination; cupule cup-shaped, without any indication
, covering proximal
portion of nut, scaly
, spines absent, scales strongly reflexed
; nut 1 per cupule, round
, not winged
Species 100-200: North America, e Asia.
Although fruit of Lithocarpus closely resembles that of Quercus, the two genera differ in characters of the inflorescence, flowers, and pollen. These characters indicate that Lithocarpus is more closely related to Castanea, Chrysolepis, and other Asian genera of subfamily Castaneoideae than to Quercus, and the similarity in fruit is because of convergence.
Species Lithocarpus densiflorus
, to 20(-45) m.
gray or brown, smooth
densely yellowish tomentose
. Leaf blade
, to 60-120 mm, leathery to brittle, margins
, teeth prominent
; surfaces abaxially
prominently and densely woolly
, often glabrate
at maturity, revealing
gray or bluish green waxy surface, veins often distally impressed
to strongly recurved, hooked
nut yellowish brown, globose
to cylindric-tapered, to 15-35 mm, extremely
hard, densely tomentose, eventually glabrate. [source]
Sterile specimens of Lithocarpus densiflorus are often confused with Chrysolepis and vice versa. Nonfruiting material of L. densiflorus is recognizable by the loose tomentose pubescence of the leaves and inflorescences (although the leaves are often glabrate with age). Chrysolepis lacks this tomentose pubescence and has only a tight vestiture of glandular-peltate trichomes , except for some stellate and straight simple trichomes associated with the flowers. [source]
Habit: Tree , Shrub • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Indeterminate • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 90 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • Mature Height (feet): 125.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 30 • Size: 30-40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,147 meters (0 to 7,044 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Fall • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 20-30' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 6.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 40 • Maximum Precipitation: 100 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 7 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 160 • Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Faganae () - (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Pasania densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Oerst. • Quercus densiflora Hooker & Arnott • Synaedrys densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Koidz.
: Fagaceae Pasania densiflora Oerst.
Basionym author: (Oerst.)
Members of the genus Lithocarpus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. densiflorus (California Chestnut Oak) · L. densiflorus echinoides (Tanoak) · L. densiflorus f. attenuato-dentatus (Mutant Tanbark Oak) · L. densiflorus var. echinoides (Shrub Tanbark Oak) · L. densiflorus var. parvus (Tanoak) · L. hancei (Hances Tanbark)
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- An annotated catalogue of types of the University of Illinois mycological collections (ILL) / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1997. url p. 251, p. 60.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 154, p. 207, p. 254, p. 323.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1296.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url p. 342, p. 358.
- North American fauna. Washington: Fish and Wildlife Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off. url p. 9.
- North American trees (exclusive of Mexico and tropical United States) A handbook designed for field use, with plates and distribution maps. Ames, Iowa State University Press url p. 173, p. 389.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 451.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 204, p. 701.
- Timber management: a programmatic environmental analysis record for BLM-administered lands in western Oregon / Office, 1974 url p. 47.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture 1949. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: 1949. url p. 767, p. 812, p. 940.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture, 1949 / the United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949 url p. 767, p. 812, p. 940.
- Huang Chengchiu, Chang Yongtian, Hsu Yongchun & Jen Hsienwei. 1998. Fagaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 1-332.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 28, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed December 06, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 10 providers.
- "Lithocarpus densiflorus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 29, 2008)
- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 06, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2646004
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-114425
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14240972
- GRIN Nomen Number: 22404
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19464
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDFAG04010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LIDE3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 47391
- Chengjiu Huang, Yongtian Zhang & Bruce Bartholomew "Fagaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 314. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Lithocarpus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 610.010 meters (2,001.345 feet), Standard Deviation = 554.330 based on 265 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]