Common Names in English:
Pale Toadflax, Creeping Toadflax, Striped Toadflax
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often sessile; veins 1 or several and campylodromous
. Inflorescences spicate
, racemose, or rarely capitate. Calyx 5-lobed almost to base
. Corolla tube
, base spurred; limb 2-lipped; lower lip convex
toward center of upper lip, almost closed
, and making corolla personate
, 3-lobed, densely glandular
; upper lip erect, 2-lobed. Stamens 4, anterior 2 longer
anterior and posterior connivent in 2 pairs, locules parallel, divergent after dehiscence. Stigma apex often emarginate
. Capsule ovoid
, apically dehiscing by irregular pores
irregular. Seeds numerous
, flattened, often disclike with a broadly winged
, rarely 3-angled and wingless or reniform
and with a thickened margin.
About 100 species: northern temperate zones, mainly in Asia and Europe; ten species in China.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,417 meters (0 to 7,930 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lamianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Linaria
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 33 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. aeruginea (Linaria) · L. alpina (Alpen-Leinkraut) · L. alpina alpina (Alpine Toadflax) · L. angustissima (Italian Toadflax) · L. bipartita (Clovenlip Toadflax) · L. bipartita linogrisea (Cloven-Lip Toadflax) · L. dalmatica (Dalmatian Toadflax) · L. dalmatica dalmatica (Dalmatian Toadflax) · L. dalmatica macedonica (Dalmatian Toadflax) · L. dalmatica subsp. macedonica (Dalmation Toadflax) · L. genistifolia (Broom-Leaf Toadflax) · L. incarnata (Crimson Toadflax) · L. maroccana (Baby Snapdragon) · L. maroccana 'Confetti' (Baby Snapdragon) · L. maroccana 'Dwarf Fairy Bouquet Mix' (Baby Snapdragon) · L. maroccana 'Fantasy' (Dwarf Baby Snapdragon) · L. nevadensis 'Gemstones' (Linaria) · L. nevadensis 'Grenada Sol' (Linaria) · L. pelisseriana (Pelissers Toadflax) · L. pinifolia (Pineneedle Toadflax) · L. pseudolaxiflora (Maltese Toadflax) · L. purpurea (Perennial Toadflax) · L. purpurea 'Alba' (Perennial Toadflax) · L. purpurea 'Canon J. Went' (Canon J. Went Perennial Toadflax) · L. repens (Pale Toadflax) · L. reticulata (Purple-Net Toadflax) · L. reticulata 'Flamenco' (Spurred Snapdragon) · L. reticulata 'Flaming Passion' (Spurred Snapdragon) · L. sepium (Toadflax) · L. spartea (Ballast Toadflax) · L. supina (Lesser Butter and Eggs) · L. triornithophora (Three Bird Toadflax) · L. vulgaris (Butter and Eggs)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 16, 2008:
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Observations du Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien.
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, CIBIO, Alicante:ABH-GBIF
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain, Jardi Botanic de Valencia: VAL
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Univ. Herbarium SALAMANCA: SALA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad del País Vasco/EHU, Bilbao: Herbario BIO
- GBIF-Spain, Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2655667
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-33214
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 1039463
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:804897-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 33214
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDSCR11090
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LIRE3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 47365
- "Linaria". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 49. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 164.130 meters (538.484 feet), Standard Deviation = 200.960 based on 3,479 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]