- Blazing Stars are fascinating Composites . These plants are "upside-down bloomers," they bloom from the top of the stalk down , rather than vice versa. Butterflies and some day-flying moths really like these flowers.
Common Names in English:
Button Snakeroot, Colic Root, Colicroot, Loosescale Gayfeather, Rattlesnake Master, Scaly Blazing Star, Scaly Gay-Feather, Scaly Gayfeather
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 20-180 cm (corms globose
to depressed-ovoid or napiform
, sometimes elongated, becoming rhizomes, roots
all or mostly adventitious). Stems erect
or basally branched. Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; ± petiolate
(basal) or sessile (usually appressed
) ; blades
usually 1-nerved, sometimes 3- or 5-nerved, mostly linear
to ovate-lanceolate, margins
often gland-dotted (stipitate-glandular
in L. glandulosa). Heads discoid
, in corymbiform
, cymiform, racemiform
, or spiciform
arrays. Involucres mostly campanulate
or turbinate-cylindric, (2.5-) 3-22(-25) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
or tardily falling, 18-40 in (2-) 3-7 series, not notably nerved, ovate
or lanceolate, usually unequal (herbaceous to petaloid
, margins often hyaline
, often ciliate
or irregularly toothed
, apices often pink-white). Receptacles flat, epaleate. Florets 3-85; corollas usually lavender to dark magenta or pinkish purple, sometimes white, throats
4-6 times diams., externally glanduliferous
inside or pilose
inside near filament
) ; styles: bases
not enlarged, glabrous, branches linear-clavate (papillate
). Cypselae prismatic
, 8-11-ribbed, usually hirsutulous
to hirtellous-pilose (glabrous in L. oligocephala), usually gland-dotted; pappi persistent, of 12-40 coarsely barbellate
in 1-2 series. x = 10.
Species 37: North America, Mexico, West Indies (Bahamas).
The globose perennating structures of Liatris have been described as corms and cormoid rootstocks , the elongate ones as rhizomes and penetrating rootstocks. They are here regarded as corms and rhizomes, rather than roots with adventitious buds. New stems may be produced from various lateral points (nodes) of the corms. Some taxa show various stages of transition between globose structures and elongate structures that function like horizontal rhizomes. All other Liatrinae (except perhaps the shrubby Garberia) apparently produce rhizomes with fibrous roots , rather than a taproot .
Species Liatris squarrosa
Plants 30-80 cm. Corms globose to slightly elongate . Stems glabrous or puberulent-villous. Leaves: basal and proximal cauline 3-5-nerved, broadly linear to linear-oblanceolate, 70-220 × 2-12 mm (largest usually distal to proximalmost), gradually reduced distally, puberulent-villous or glabrous, weakly gland-dotted. Heads borne singly or (3-26) in loose , racemiform to spiciform arrays. Peduncles 0 or (spreading to ascending ) 1-8(-20+) mm. Involucres cylindro-campanulate, 12-20(-25) × 7-10 mm. Phyllaries (usually erect , sometimes spreading-reflexing on the distal 1/3) in 5-7 series, narrowly ovate-triangular and foliaceous (outer) to ovate or oblong-triangular, ± equal, glabrous or pubescent , margins without hyaline borders , stiffly to softly ciliate , apices acuminate to acute. Florets (10-) 23-45(-60) ; corolla tubes glabrous inside (lobes adaxially hispid ). Cypselae 4-5.5 mm; pappi: lengths ± equaling corollas, bristles plumose . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September. • Flower Color: lavender, violet
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,253 meters (0 to 4,111 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Lacinaria squarrosa (Linnaeus) Hill • Serratula squarrosa Linnaeus
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:45B96E47-D14A-409E-B901-21E3C96E7486
Last scrutiny: 18-Aug-09
Members of the genus Liatris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 105 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
L. acidota (Sharp Blazing Star) · L. aestivalis (Sharp Blazing Star) · L. aspera (Button Blazing Star) · L. aspera var. aspera (Tall Blazing Star) · L. aspera var. intermedia (Tall Blazing Star) · L. aspera var. salutans (Tall Blazing Star) · L. aspera var. salutans (Lunell) Shinners (Tall Blazing Star) · L. boykinii (Boykin's Gayfeather) · L. bracteata (Bracted Blazing Star) · L. chapmanii (Chapman Gay-Feather) · L. cokeri (Coker's Gayfeather) · L. creditonensis (Gayfeather) · L. cylindracea (Cylindric Blazing Star) · L. cymosa (Branched Blazing Star) · L. densispicata (Dense-Spike Gayfeather) · L. densispicata (Bush) Gaiser var. densispicata (Bush) Gaiser (Densespike Blazing Star) · L. densispicata var. densispicata (Densespike Blazing Star) · L. densispicata var. interrupta (Densespike Blazing Star) · L. elegans (Elegant Gayfeather) · L. elegans var. carizzana (Pinkscale Blazing Star) · L. elegans var. carizzana Gaiser (Elegant Blazingstar) · L. elegans var. elegans (Pinkscale Blazing Star) · L. elegans var. flabellata (Pinkscale Blazing Star) · L. elegans var. flabellata (Small) Gaiser (Pinkscale Blazing Star) · L. fallacior (Gayfeather) · L. frostii (Frost's Gayfeather) · L. garberi (Garber's Blazing Star) · L. gholsonii (Gholson's Gayfeather) · L. gladewitzii (Gladewitz's Gayfeather) · L. glandulosa (Glandular Blazing Star) · L. gracilis (Slender Blazing Star) · L. graminifolia var. graminifolia (Grassleaf Gayfeather) · L. helleri (Heller's Blazing Star) · L. lancifolia (Lance-Leaf Gay-Feather) · L. ligulistylis (Meadow Blazing Star) · L. microcephala (Dwarf Purple Liatris) · L. microcephala 'Alba' (Dwarf Gay Feather) · L. mucronata (Blazing Star) · L. ohlingerae (Florida Blazing Star) · L. oligocephala (Cahaba Torch) · L. pauciflora (Few-Flower Gay-Feather) · L. pilosa (Blazing Star) · L. pilosa var. elegantula (Shaggy Blazing Star) · L. pilosa var. lasia (Shaggy Blazing Star) · L. pilosa var. pilosa (Shaggy Blazing Star) · L. provincialis (Godfrey's Blazing Star) · L. punctata (Dotted Blazing Star) · L. punctata var. mexicana (Mexican Blazing Star) · L. punctata var. mexicana Gaiser (Mexican Blazing Star) · L. punctata var. nebraskana (Nebraska Blazing Star) · L. punctata var. punctata (Dotted Blazing Star) · L. pycnostachya (Cat-Tail Gayfeather) · L. pycnostachya Michx. var. lasiophylla Shinners (Cattail Gayfeather) · L. pycnostachya var. lasiophylla (Prairie Blazing Star) · L. pycnostachya var. pycnostachya (Prairie Blazing Star) · L. pycnostachya 'Alba' (Prairie Blazingstar) · L. pycnostachya 'Eureka' (Cattail Gayfeather) · L. regiomontis (Gayfeather) · L. ridgwayi (Ridgeway's Gayfeather) · L. scariosa (Devil's Bite) · L. scariosa var. nieuwlandii (Nieuwland's Blazing Star) · L. scariosa var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) E.G. Voss (Devil's Bite) · L. scariosa var. novae-angliae (Devil's Bite) · L. scariosa var. scariosa (Devil's Bite) · L. scariosa var. virginiana (Virginia Blazing Star) · L. scariosa var. virginiana (Lunell) Gaiser (Devil's Bite) · L. scariosa 'Gracious' (Eastern Blazing Star) · L. scariosa 'White Spires' (Eastern Blazing Star) · L. scariosa 'White Spire' (Devil's Bite) · L. secunda (Lax Gayfeather) · L. spheroidea (Spherical Blazing Star) · L. spicata (Blazing Star) · L. spicata var. racemosa (Dense Blazing Star) · L. spicata var. resinosa (Dense Blazing Star) · L. spicata var. resinosa (Nutt.) Gaiser (Dense Blazing Star) · L. spicata var. spicata (Dense Blazing Star) · L. spicata 'Alba' (Gay Feather) · L. spicata'Floristan' (Floristan White Blazing Star) · L. spicata 'Floristan Violet' (Blazing Star) · L. spicata 'Floristan White' (Floristan White Dense Blazing Star) · L. spicata 'Kobold' (Blazing Star) · L. spicata 'Snow White' (Dense Blazing Star) · L. squarrosa (Button Snakeroot) · L. squarrosa var. alabamensis (Alabama Blazing Star) · L. squarrosa var. alabamensis (Alexander) Gaiser (Alabama Blazing Star) · L. squarrosa var. compacta (Ozark Scaly Blazingstar) · L. squarrosa var. glabrata (Scaly Blazing Star) · L. squarrosa var. hirsuta (Scaly Blazing Star) · L. squarrosa var. squarrosa (Scaly Blazing Star) · L. squarrulosa (Appalachian Blazing Star) · L. steelei (Steele's Gayfeather) · L. tenuifolia (Short-Leaf Blazing Star) · L. tenuifolia var. quadriflora (Shortleaf Blazing Star) · L. tenuifolia var. tenuifolia (Shortleaf Blazing Star) · L. tenuifolia var. tenuifolia Nutt. (Shortleaf Blazing Star) · L. tenuis (Gulf Blazing Star) · L. turgida (Turgid Blazing Star) · L. virgata (Grassleaf Gayfeather) · L. weaveri (Weaver's Gayfeather) · L. x creditonensis (Gayfeather)
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- A compendium of the flora of the northern and middle states, containing generic and specific descriptions of all the plants, exclusive of the cryptogamia, hitherto found in the United States, north of the Potomac. New York, S. B. Collins, 1826. url p. 282.
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- First biennial report of the progress of the Geological survey of Michigan, embracing observations on the geology, zoo?logy and botany of the lower peninsula. Made to the governor, December 31, 1860. Lansing, Hosmer & Kerr, printers to the state, 1861. url , .
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658928
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-8132
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13790290
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:230637-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 70401
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37945
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST5X0U0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LIGLA LISQ
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 45803
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- Mean = 246.850 meters (809.875 feet), Standard Deviation = 217.820 based on 579 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]