Common Names in English:
Dewdrop, Loddon-Lily, Snowbell, Summer Snowflake
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, globose
bulb. Leaves several; blade
. Scape stout, hollow [slender, solid]. Inflorescences umbellate
, 2-5(-7) -flowered, spathaceous
bracts 2, free
or entirely adnate
on 1 side, appearing monophyllous
. Flowers nodding
; perianth campanulate
; tepals 6, distinct
, equal; stamens 6, distinct; anthers
, conic, longer
apically, dehiscing by terminal
; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style filiform
, exceeding anthers; stigma minutely capitate. Fruits capsular
to subglobose, dehiscence loculicidal; pericarp somewhat fleshy
. Seeds numerous
, black, appendages
= 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Species ca. 10: introduced ; c, sw Europe, nw Africa, and sw Asia (Armenia, Crimea) ; introduced elsewhere.
Several species of Leucojum are cultivated for their flowers. Although other species such as L. autumnale Linnaeus (autumn snowflake) and L. vernum Linnaeus (spring snowflake) may persist in old gardens, only the commonly cultivated L. aestivum (summer snowflake) is known definitely to be naturalized in the flora . There are unconfirmed reports that L. vernum is naturalized in the panhandle area of Florida.
Leucojum is sometimes confused with Galanthus, a spring-flowering, Eurasian relative, but it differs in that Leucojum has perianth segments that are all equal in size, and hollow stems that are usually taller and bear 2-5 flowers. In the southern states, the common name snowdrop, which usually refers to Galanthus species, is applied to Leucojum.
Leaves and bulbs of Leucojum contain the alkaloids lycorine and galanthamine, and are poisonous.
Species Leucojum aestivum
Plants to 30-60 cm; bulb 2-4 × 2-3(-4) cm. Leaves: sheaths 3-6 mm, membranous; blade deep green, linear to ligulate , 30-50(-70) × 0.5-2 cm, apex obtuse , glossy, well developed at anthesis . Scape stout, hollow, 2-winged, compressed , (20-) 30-60 cm. Spathe bract solitary, fused, green, lanceolate, 3-5 cm. Flowers: tepals white with yellowish green spot near apex, broadly ovate , (10-) 13-22 × 10-12 mm; filaments white, slender, 2-5 mm; anthers 5-6 mm; ovary oblong-ovate, 6-10 × 5-8 mm; style clavate , 5-10 mm, exceeding stamens; stigma truncate , inconspicuous; pedicel 2.5-7 cm, longest equaling or exceeding spathe. Seeds black, 5-7 mm; coat loose , with air pockets at each end. 2n = 22, 24. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: green, near white, pale green, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Roadsides, fields , waste places; 0--500 m ; introduced .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,023 meters (0 to 3,356 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L. Publication : Systema Naturae 1759 (May-Jun. 1759)
Members of the genus Leucojum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 14 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. aestivum (Dewdrop) · L. aestivum aestivum (Summer Snowflake) · L. aestivum pulchellum (Summer Snowflake) · L. aestivum 'Gravetye Giant' (Dewdrop) · L. aestivum subsp. pulchellum (Summer Snowflake) · L. autumnale (Autumn Snowflake) · L. autumnale 'Cobb's Variety' (Autumn Snowflake) · L. capitulatum (Palm-Grass) · L. nicaeense (Mentone) · L. pulchellum (Summer Snowflake) · L. roseum (Snowflake) · L. vernum (Spring Snowflake) · L. vernum var. carpathicum (Spring Snowflake) · L. vernum var. vagneri (Spring Snowflake)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667819
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-280491
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:65743-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 21975
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503422
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 65743-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMLIL19010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LEAEA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 46974
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- Mean = 96.440 meters (316.404 feet), Standard Deviation = 114.280 based on 1,207 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]