, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 411 meters (0 to 1,348 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cynanchum Pyrotechnicum • Cynanchum pyrotechnicum Forssk. • Microloma Pyrotechnicum • Microloma pyrotechnicum (Forssk.) Spreng. • Sarcostemma pyrotechnicum (Forssk.) Schult.
Members of the genus Leptadenia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1247.
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- Journal of ethnobiology. 14 1994 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 85.
- Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. London, British Entomological and Natural History Society. url p. 96.
- Some account of the fauna and flora of Sinai, Petra, and Wa?dy 'Arabah, London, Pub. for the Committee of the Palestine exploration fund by A. P. Watt, 1891. url , , , .
- The contemporary land mammals of Egypt (including Sinai) / Dale J. Osborn, Ibrahim Helmy. 5 1980 [Chicago]: Field Museum of Natural History, 1980. url fig. 15 , fig. 64 , p. 1, p. 107, p. 199, p. 29, p. 44, p. 505.
- The ethnobotany of southern Balochistan, Pakistan: with particular reference to medicinal plants / Steven M. Goodman, Abdul Ghafoor. 31 1992 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, c1992. url p. 6, p. 82.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The future of arid lands: papers and recommendations from the International Arid Lands Meetings / edited by Gilbert F. White. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1956. url p. 399, p. 449.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), The System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8407109
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15068798
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:98980-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 749524
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 198.200 meters (650.262 feet), Standard Deviation = 184.710 based on 5 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]