The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
or biennials [perennials
, sometimes spiny
], [5-]30-150 cm; usually taprooted [stoloniferous
]. Stems erect
], distally branched, glabrous
.. Leaves basal or basal and proximally cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blades
, often pinnately lobed
(teeth usually ± prickly; faces
glabrous [± hairy]). Heads in spiciform
arrays [borne singly]. Peduncles not inflated
. Calyculi 0 (or bractlets
intergrading with phyllaries). Involucres cylindric
, or obconic], 3-5[-16] mm diam. Phyllaries (persistent
in fruit) 18-25 in 3-5+ series, unequal, ovate
to lanceolate (outer) or linear
(inner), margins scarious
, apices obtuse
to acuminate (faces glabrous [± hairy]). Receptacles flat to convex
, epaleate. Florets 25-30; corollas yellow to ochroleucous
[cyanic]. Cypselae blackish to grayish, cylindric to fusiform
or ± prismatic
, sometimes ± compressed
0 (or lengths
0.05-0.1 times bodies), 4-5-ribbed (or -grooved), ribs
, faces glabrous; pappi persistent or tardily falling [readily falling], double
], of 60-100+, outer, white, often ± coiled
in 2-3 series plus 80-120+, white, coarser, barbellulate
bristles in 2-3+ series, all distinct
or some basally connate
. x = 9.
Species ca. 50: introduced ; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; introduced also in Europe, n Africa, Atlantic Islands, sw, c Asia.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Cichorioideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: African Flowering Plants Database , IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med, Abu Dhabi Emirate. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:4B068A49-CA5C-430D-B0FC-AA596625C4B0
Last scrutiny: 14-Aug-09
Members of the genus Launaea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Asiatic herpetological research. 9 2001 Berkeley, Calif.: Asiatic Herpetological Research Society; c1990- url p. 31.
- The contemporary land mammals of Egypt (including Sinai) / Dale J. Osborn, Ibrahim Helmy. 5 1980 [Chicago]: Field Museum of Natural History, 1980. url p. 501.
- The ethnobotany of southern Balochistan, Pakistan: with particular reference to medicinal plants / Steven M. Goodman, Abdul Ghafoor. 31 1992 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, c1992. url p. 82.
- Kilian, N. 1997. Revision of Launaea Cass. (Compositae, Lactuceae, Sonchinae). Englera 17.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 29, 2007:
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9253507
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-15687
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15169804
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:228995-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2134704