or rarely shrubs
or deciduous, monoecious. Branchlets
: long branchlets with clearly spirally arranged
, sometimes scalelike leaves; short branchlets often reduced to slow growing lateral
spurs bearing dense clusters
of leaves at apex. Leaves solitary or in bundles of (1 or) 2-5(-8) when basally subtended by a leaf sheath
; leaf blade linear
or needlelike, not decurrent. Cones unisexual
. Pollen cones solitary or clustered, with numerous
spirally arranged microsporophylls
; microsporophyll with 2 microsporangia; pollen usually 2-saccate (nonsaccate in Cedrus, Larix, Pseudotsuga, and most species of Tsuga) . Seed cones erect
or pendulous, maturing in 1st, 2nd, or occasionally 3rd year, dehiscent
or occasionally indehiscent, with many spirally arranged ovulate
and bracts; ovulate scales usually smaller than bracts at pollination, with 2 upright ovules adaxially, free
or only basally adnate
with bracts, maturing into seed scales. Seed scales appressed
, woody or leathery, variable in shape
and size, with 2 seeds adaxially, persistent
or deciduous after cone maturity. Bracts free or adnate basally with seed scales, well developed or rudimentary
, exserted or included
. Seeds terminally winged
(except in some species of Pinus) . Cotyledons 2-18. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = 24* (almost always) .
Ten or eleven genera and ca. 235 species: N hemisphere; ten genera (two endemic) and 108 species (43 endemic, 24 introduced ) in China.
Species of the Pinaceae are among the most valuable and commercially important plants in the world. Most species are trees, and are often excellent sources of lumber, wood products, and resins; many are cultivated for afforestation and as ornamentals .
deciduous; crown sparse, open. Bark
silver-gray to gray-brown on young trees, becoming reddish brown to brown, smooth
to thickened and furrowed
with age. Branches whorled
; short (spur) shoots
2 years or more old, each bearing leaves (needles
), and often pollen cone, or seed cone; lateral
long shoots (sylleptic branches) sometimes produced
by current-year growth increments
; leaf scars
many. Buds rounded
. Leaves in tufts of 10--60 on short (spur) shoots or borne singly on 1st-year long shoots, deciduous, ± flattened, with abaxial
keel, sessile, base
absent, apex pointed
or rounded; resin canals 2. Pollen cones solitary, ovoid-cylindric, yellowish. Seed cones maturing in 1 season
, persisting several years, erect
, usually terminal
on short shoots and thus appearing stalked
, sometimes sessile on 1-year-old long shoots; scales
, circular to oblong-obovate, thin, lacking apophysis and umbo; bracts included
or exserted. Seeds winged
; cotyledons 4--6. x
Species 10: boreal and cold north temperate areas, North America, Eurasia .
Species of Larix are present in most boreal regions; they often form only a minor component of the vegetation. Some are important for their hard, heavy, and decay-resistant wood . Only a few have received any horticultural attention; some cultivars exist for the most commonly cultivated Old World larches, L. decidua Miller and L. kaempferi (Lambert) CarriÃ¨re, but almost none for the North American species.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Larix
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. decidua (Common Larch) · L. decidua var. decidua (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Corley' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Julian's Weeper' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Pendula' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Varied Directions' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Whorled Peace' (European Larch) · L. gmelinii f. hsinganica (Dahurian Larch) · L. kaempferi (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi var. pendula (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Blue Rabbit' (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Blue Sparkler' (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Herynek Wb' (Larch) · L. laricina (Alaskan Larch) · L. laricina f. parvistrobus (Eastern Larch) · L. laricina 'Girard Dwarf' (Alaskan Larch) · L. lyallii (Subalpine Larch) · L. occidentalis (Hackmatack) · L. russica (Siberian Larch) · L. sibirica (Siberian Larch) · L. × eurolepis (Dunkeld Hybrid Larch)
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- Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo, Law Yu-wu, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Wen-tsai, Chu Cheng-de, Chao Chi-son & Chen Chia-jui. 1978. Pinaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 32-281.
- Arno, S.F. and J.R. Habeck. 1972. Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest. Ecol. Monogr. 42: 417--450.
- Bakowsky, O.A. 1989. Phenotypic Variation in Larix lyallii and Relationships in the Larch Genus. M.Sc.F. thesis. Lakehead University.
- Carlson,C. 1965. Interspecific Hybridization of Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.
- Dickinson, T.A., W.H. Parker, and R.E. Strauss. 1987. Another approach to leaf shape comparisons. Taxon 36: 1--20.
- Knudsen, G.M. 1968. Chemotaxonomic Investigation of Hybridization between Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.
- Owens, J.N. and S.Simpson. 1986. Pollen from conifers native to British Columbia. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 955--967.
- Parker, W.H. and T.A. Dickinson. 1990. Range-wide morphological and anatomical variation in Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 832--840.
- Powell, G. R. 1987. Syllepsis in Larix laricina: Analysis of tree leaders with and without sylleptic long shoots. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 490--498.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1820106
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Thomas S. Elias & Robert R. Mill "Pinaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- William H. Parker "Larix". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]