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Lactuca perennis

(Blue lettuce)

Overview

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in English:

Blue lettuce, Mountain Lettuce

Common Names in French:

Laitue Vivace

Common Names in German:

Blauer Lattich

Common Names in Hungarian:

Kék Saláta

Common Names in Italian:

Lattùga Rupestre, Lattuga Rupestre

Common Names in Japanese:

Rakutsuka Perennisu

Common Names in Serbian:

Otrovnica Modra

Description

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Family Compositae

The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.

Tribe Lactuceae

The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.

Genus Lactuca

Annuals or biennials, 15-450+ cm; taprooted. Stems usually 1, usually erect , branched distally or throughout, glabrous or hairy (sometimes hispid to setose ) . Leaves basal and cauline or mostly cauline (at flowering) ; sessile or petiolate ; blades orbiculate, ovate , oblong , or lanceolate to oblanceolate , linear , or filiform , margins entire or denticulate to pinnately lobed (faces glabrous or hairy, often ± setose) . Heads borne singly or in corymbiform to paniculiform arrays. Peduncles not inflated distally, sometimes bracteate . Calyculi of 3-10+, deltate to lanceolate bractlets in 2-3 series (sometimes intergrading with phyllaries) . Involucres campanulate to cylindric , 2-5[-8+] mm diam. Phyllaries 5-13+ in ± 2 series (erect or reflexed in fruit), lanceolate to linear, usually subequal to equal, margins sometimes scarious , apices obtuse to acute. Receptacles flat to convex , pitted , glabrous, epaleate. Florets 6-50+; corollas yellow, bluish, or whitish. Cypselae reddish brown, tan, whitish, or purplish to blackish, bodies compressed to flattened, elliptic to oblong, beaks stout (0.1-1 mm, gradually or weakly set off from bodies) or filiform (2-6 mm, sharply set off from bodies), ribs 1-9 on each face, faces often transversely rugulose , usually glabrous; pappi persistent (borne on discs at tips of cypselae or beaks), obscurely double (spp. 1-2), each a minute, erose corona 0.05-0.2 mm subtending 40-80+, white or fuscous , ± equal, barbellate to barbellulate bristles in 1-2 series, or simple (spp. 3-10) of 80-120+, white, ± equal, barbellulate to nearly smooth bristles in 2-3+ series. x = 9.

Species ca. 75: North America, Mexico, Central America, Eurasia , Africa.

The common head and leaf lettuces of home gardens and commerce are derived from Lactuca sativa.[1]

Habitat

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,658 meters (0 to 8,720 feet).[2]

Ecology: L. perennis grows in lowland to subalpine habitats , preferring calcium rich habitats such as rocky limestone slopes and long warm vegetative periods (Feráková 1977, Lebeda et al. 2004). It can also be found in sunny exposed areas and grassy slopes and vineyards (Polunin 1969, Feráková 1977), as well as dry oak forests , eutrophic ruderal sites, semi-dry meadows and pastures. Specifically, in Hungary, it grows in rocky grasslands (Seslerio-Festucetum pallentis), rocky steppes , sloped steppes and  forest steppe meadows (Soó 1966, Simon 1992).[3].

List of Habitats:

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Lactuca deggeleriana

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Comment: Data Providers: Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:97A24D85-8DBF-453A-9581-C34C219E5826

Last scrutiny: 14-Aug-09

Lactuca perennis L. is a wild relative of lettuce, L. sativa L.[3].

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Lactuca

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 533 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

L. biennis (Blue Lettuce) · L. canadensis (Canada Lettuce) · L. canadensis var. canadensis (Canada Lettuce) · L. floridana (False Lettuce) · L. floridana var. floridana (Woodland Lettuce) · L. floridana var. villosa (Woodland Lettuce) · L. graminifolia (Grass-Leaf Lettuce) · L. graminifolia var. arizonica (Grassleaf Lettuce) · L. graminifolia var. arizonica McVaugh (Grassleaf Lettuce) · L. graminifolia var. graminifolia (Grassleaf Lettuce) · L. hirsuta (Hairy Lettuce) · L. hirsuta var. albiflora (Hairy Lettuce) · L. hirsuta var. hirsuta (Hairy Lettuce) · L. hirsuta var. hirsuta Muhl. ex Nutt. (Hairy Lettuce) · L. hirsuta var. sanguinea (Hairy Lettuce) · L. hirsuta var. sanguinea (Bigelow) Fern. (Hairy Wild Lettuce) · L. indica (Indian Lettuce) · L. ludoviciana (Biannual Lettuce) · L. morssii (Morss' Lettuce) · L. perennis (Blue Lettuce) · L. plumieri (Hairless Blue-Sow-Thistle) · L. quercina (Wild Oak-Leaved Lettuce) · L. saligna (Willow-Leaf Lettuce) · L. sativa (Garden Lettuce) · L. sativa var. asparagina 'Coldhardiness' (Asparagus Lettuce) · L. sativa var. asparagina 'Spring' (Asparagus Lettuce) · L. sativa var. asparagina 'Summer 38' (Asparagus Lettuce) · L. sativa var. Bistro Salad Blend (Lettuce) · L. sativa var. longifolia 'Chartwell' (Lettuce (Romaine) 'chartwell') · L. sativa 'Abbice' (Lettuce 'abbice') · L. sativa 'Adriana' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Albanas' (Lettuce 'albanas') · L. sativa 'Aleppo' (Lettuce 'aleppo') · L. sativa 'All the Year Round' (Butterhead Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Alpen' (Head) · L. sativa 'Amaze' (Lettuce 'amaze') · L. sativa 'Amblaï' (Lettuce 'amba) · L. sativa 'Ambroisie' (Lettuce 'ambroisie') · L. sativa 'Amish Deer Tongue' (Loose Leaf Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Anibal' (Lettuce 'anibal') · L. sativa 'Antares' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Antartica' (Lettuce 'antarctic) · L. sativa 'Anuenue' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Arctic King' (Butterhead Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Argentinas' (Lettuce 'argentinas') · L. sativa 'Armada' (Iceberg) · L. sativa 'Arran' (Lettuce 'arran') · L. sativa 'Arwen' (Lettuce 'arwen') · L. sativa 'Ascona Rz' (Greenhouse) · L. sativa 'Attaktion' (Butterhead Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Attrazione' (Butterhead) · L. sativa 'Australian Yellow' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Australische Gele' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Autumn Gold' (Iceberg) · L. sativa 'Aviram' (Iceberg) · L. sativa 'Babylon' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Baby Star' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bacardi' (Butterhead Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Baglin' (Lettuce 'baglin') · L. sativa 'Bakel' (Lettuce 'bakel') · L. sativa 'Bakito' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Bakura' (Lettuce 'bakura') · L. sativa 'Balain' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bali' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Ballade' (Head) · L. sativa 'Ballon' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bambi' (Butterhead Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Barcelona' (Iceberg) · L. sativa 'Baroak' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Baronet' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Barosso' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Batavian Blonde' (Head) · L. sativa 'Bath' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Beatrice' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Bellisimo' (Greenhouse) · L. sativa 'Belmonte' (Lettuce 'belmonte') · L. sativa 'Beltran' (Lettuce 'beltran') · L. sativa 'Bennett' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Berna' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Big Boston' (Big Boston Lettuce Lactuca Sativa) · L. sativa 'Big Sur' (Iceberg) · L. sativa 'Bionda a Foglia' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Bionda Della 7 Lune' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Black-Seeded Simpson' (Black-Seeded Simpson Lettuce Lactuca Sativa) · L. sativa 'Blackjack' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Blonde' (Batavia Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Blonde de Paris' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Blonde De Yamoussoukro' (Head) · L. sativa 'Blushed Butter' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Blushed Butter Oaks' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Blushed Icy Oak Gene Pool' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Blush' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Bordo Rosso' (Head) · L. sativa 'Bos 9003' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bos 9021' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bougival' (Cos) · L. sativa 'Bredale' (Lettuce 'bredale') · L. sativa 'Brillantine' (Head) · L. sativa 'Bronze Arrow' (Lettuce) · L. sativa 'Bronze Guard' (Lettuce)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 29, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. John L. Strother "Lactuca". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 216, 258, 259. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Mean = 216.610 meters (710.663 feet), Standard Deviation = 248.690 based on 1,098 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
  3. Kell, S.P. 2011. Lactuca perennis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-09