Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Common Rush, Soft Rush, Cork Screw Rush, Lamp Rush
Common Names in French:
Jonc Diffus, Jonc à Lier, Jonc épars, Jonc ?pars
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
Herbs, very rarely shrublike, perennial
or with erect
rhizome. Stems erect, terete
or laterally flattened. Leaves occasionally reduced to a bladeless or nearly bladeless sheath
of stem (cataphyll) ; leaf sheath often shortly prolonged on both sides into a pair of auricles
at leaf blade juncture; leaf blade of basal and cauline leaves usually linear
, grasslike and flat, or terete, glabrous
except for pilose
on some grasslike blades
. Inflorescence a panicle, corymb, or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual
dioecious, mostly wind pollinated, regular, usually small, usually 1- or 2-bracteolate at base. Perianth segments (3 or) 6, in (1 or) 2 whorls, free
, usually greenish to brownish or blackish, rarely white or yellowish, glumelike. Stamens 3 or 6, if 6 then 3 opposite outer perianth segments; filaments
, 2-loculed, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits; pollen grains
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed, or divided
by 3 septa and 3-loculed, or incompletely septate
; ovules 3 and inserted
at base of ovary, or numerous
on 3 parietal
placentas. Stigmas 3, papillose
. Fruit a capsule, 1--3-valved, loculicidal. Seeds globose
, or fusiform
, small, sometimes appendaged; appendage
; embryo straight, minute, enclosed by fleshy
About eight genera and ca. 400 species: widely distributed in temperate and cold regions of both hemispheres, in tropical regions restricted to high elevations ; two genera and 92 species (33 endemic) in China.
or rarely annual
or cespitose. Culms
or flattened in cross
. Cataphylls often present at culm base. Leaves: sheaths
, sometimes septate
. Inflorescences terminal
or pseudoaxillary, monochasia or dichasia, usually with monochasial
branches, cymes or 1--many heads
or panicles; bracteoles 2 or absent. Flowers: tepals (4--) 6 in 2 whorls; stamens (2--) 3--6. Capsules 1-locular or 3-locular, septicidal
. Seeds many, ellipsoid
, sometimes tailed
Species ca. 300: worldwide except Antarctica.
Species Juncus effusus
, 4--13 dm. Rhizomes short -branched, forming distinct
often large clumps
, 1--2.5 mm diam. at top of
. Cataphylls several. Leaves: blade
dichasia, many flowered; primary
bract erect, terete,
extending well beyond dichasium. Flowers: tepals tan or darker, usually
with greenish midstripe, lanceolate, 1.9--3.5 mm; inner slightly
shorter; stamens 3, filaments
0.5--0.8 mm, anthers
0.5--0.8 mm; style
Capsules greenish tan or darker, 3-locular, broadly ellipsoid
, 1.5--3.2 mm. Seeds amber, (0.3--) 0.4---0.5 mm. 2n = 40,
42. Flowering summer, fruiting summer--fall. [source]
The Juncus effusus complex has been variously recognized as containing several species or a single species with numerous infraspecific taxa. Unfortunately, North American treatments have dealt primarily with taxa in either the eastern or western portions of the continent. In considering the continent as a whole, little sense can be made of these treatments. The North American J. effusus complex is one that is in obvious need of modern systematic scrutiny. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July. • Flower Color: bronze, brown
Size: 6-12" tall.
Swamps and their edges , marshes, moist meadows, and moist or saturated soils, often conspicuous in pasture meadows where it is shunned by grazing animals; Habitat??; 0--2500 m .
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 130 meters (426 feet).
It grows scattered
mostly in wetland habitats
although it can also occur in wet pasture or moorlands. It is found
and open wet woodlands. (Ref.
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.2 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land [more info]
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
J. effusus var. brunneus Engelmann • J. effusus var. caeruleomontanus H. St. John • J. effusus var. conglomeratus (Linnaeus) Engelmann • J. effusus var. costulatus Fernaldst. John • J. effusus var. dicipiens Buchenau • J. effusus var. exiguus Fernald & Wiegand • J. effusus var. gracilis Hooker • J. effusus var. pylaei (Laharpe) Fernald & Wiegand • J. effusus var. solutus Fernald & Wiegand • J. effusus var. subglomeratus Lamarck & De Candolle • J. griscomii Fernald • Juncus acutiflorus effusus G. Mey. • Juncus canariensis • Juncus communis • Juncus communis E. Mey. • Juncus communis effusus (L.) Celak • Juncus conglomeratus Linnaeus • Juncus conglomeratus var. effusus (L.) Kostel. • Juncus effusus var. macranthelus K. Koch • Juncus expansus • Juncus fistulosus • Juncus laevis var. effusus (L.) Wallr. • Juncus laevis Wallr. • Juncus pylaei
Publishing author : L. Publication : Species Plantarum 1753 (1 May 1753)
Members of the genus Juncus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 195 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
J. acuminatus (Sharp-Fruit Rush) · J. acutiflorus (Sharp-Flower Rush) · J. acutiflorus acutiflorus (Sharpflower Rush) · J. acutus (Sharp Rush) · J. acutus acutus (Spiny Rush) · J. acutus f. xanthosus (Spiny-Rush) · J. acutus leopoldii (Spiny Rush) · J. aemulans (Common Rush) · J. alpiniformis (Alpine Rush) · J. alpinoarticulatus (Northern Green Rush) · J. alpinoarticulatus nodulosus (Alpine Rush) · J. alpinoarticulatus var. macrocephalus (Northern Green Rush) · J. ambiguus (Rush) · J. ambiguus var. ossoraicus (Rush) · J. anthelatus (Greater Poverty Rush) · J. arcticus (Arctic Rush) · J. arcticus arcticus (Arctic Rush) · J. arcticus littoralis (Arctic Rush) · J. articulatus (Jointed Rush) · J. articulatus articulatus (Jointleaf Rush) · J. articulatus f. natans (Jointed Rush) · J. articulatus f. pallidus (Jointed Rush) · J. articulatus f. stolonifer (Jointed Rush) · J. articulatus f. zapalowiczii (Jointed Rush) · J. articulatus subsp. articulatus (Jointed Rush) · J. australis (Austral Rush) · J. balticus (Baltic Rush) · J. balticus Willd. var. melanogenus Fern. & Wieg. (Baltic Rush) · J. balticus Willd. var. stenocarpus Buch. & Fern. (Baltic Rush) · J. balticus Willd. var. vallicola Rydb. (Valley Rush) · J. biglumis (Two-Flowered Rush) · J. blue glauca (Blue Rush) · J. bolanderi (Bolander's Rush) · J. brachycarpus (Short-Fruit Rush) · J. brachycephalus (Small-Head Rush) · J. brachyphyllus (Short-Leaf Rush) · J. brevicaudatus (Canadian Rush) · J. breweri (Brewer's Rush) · J. bryoides (Moss Rush) · J. bufonius (Toad Rush) · J. bufonius L. var. congestus Wahlenb. (Toad Rush) · J. bufonius L. var. occidentalis F.J.Herm. (Toad Rush) · J. bufonius var. cogdonii (Toad Rush) · J. bufonius var. halophilus (Toad Rush) · J. bulbosus (Bulbous Rush) · J. caesariensis (New Jersey Rush) · J. canadensis (Canada Rush) · J. capillaris (Hairy-Stem Rush) · J. capitatus (Capitate Rush) · J. castaneus castaneus (Chestnut Rush) · J. castaneus castaneus var. castaneus (Chestnut Rush) · J. castaneus leucochlamys (Chestnut Rush) · J. chlorocephalus (Green-Headed Rush) · J. compressus (Flattened Rush) · J. confusus (Colorado Rush) · J. conglomeratus (Common Rush) · J. cooperi (Cooper Rush) · J. coriaceus (Leathery Rush) · J. covillei (Coville Rush) · J. covillei Piper var. covillei Piper (Coville's Rush) · J. covillei Piper var. obtusatus C.L.Hitchc. (Coville's Rush) · J. cyperoides (Forbestown Rush) · J. debilis (Weak Rush) · J. decipiens 'Curly Wurly' (Corkscrew Rush) · J. dichotomus (Forked Rush) · J. diffusissimus (Diffuse Rush) · J. drummondii (Drummond's Rush) · J. drummondii var. subtriflorus (E.Mey.) C.L.Hitchc. (Threeflower Rush) · J. dubius (Mariposa Rush) · J. dudleyi (Dudley's Rush) · J. effusus (Common Rush) · J. effusus effusus var. effusus (Common Rush) · J. effusus gracilis (Lamp Rush) · J. effusus L. var. decipiens (Lamp Rush) · J. effusus pacificus var. pacificus (Pacific Rush) · J. effusus var. brunneus Engelm. (Soft Rush) · J. effusus var. exiguus Fern. & Wieg. (Lamp Rush) · J. effusus var. Spiralis (Corkscrew Rush) · J. effusus var. Spiralis 'Variegata' (Variegated Spiral Soft Rush) · J. effusus 'Frenzy' (Corkscrew Rush) · J. effusus 'Glaucus' (Blue Rush) · J. effusus 'Goldstrike' (Goldstrike Cork Screw Rush) · J. effusus 'Lemon Twist' (Striped Spiral Rush) · J. effusus 'Quarter Creek' (Soft Rush) · J. effusus 'Quartz Creek' (Soft Rush) · J. effusus 'Squiggly Wiggly' (Corkscrew Rush) · J. effusus 'Unicorn' (Corkscrew Rush) · J. elliottii (Bog Rush) · J. ensifolius (Swordleaf Rush) · J. ensifolius var. brunnescens (Swordleaf Rush) · J. falcatus (Falcate Rush) · J. filiformis (Thread Rush) · J. filipendulus (Plains Rush) · J. foliosus (Toad Rush) · J. fulvescens (Rush) · J. georgianus (Georgia Rush) · J. gerardii (Black-Grass Rush) · J. gerardii gerardii (Saltmeadow Rush) · J. gerardii Loisel. var. pedicellatus Fern. (Saltmeadow Rush) · J. gracilescens (Rush)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2659893
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: IOP-392
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4395043
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:442918-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 20791
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 39232
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 135130-3
- IUCN ID: 217082
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- Standard Deviation = 227.640 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]