or rarely shrubs
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, monoecious or rarely dioecious; bark
tight (or exfoliating) . Branchlets
with solid or chambered
buds subglobose or ovoid
, naked or with scales
. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate (or opposite), odd- or even-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolate
, rarely simple
, peltate scales, often resinous
, particularly conspicuous
abaxially on young leaves and twigs
serrate or rarely entire. Inflorescences pendulous or sometimes erect
or terminal, on reduced shoots
arising on branchlets of previous year (old growth) or on current
yearâ€™s growth (new growth), of several types: androgynous panicle with male, lateral spikes and female, central spike; androgynous panicle with male, mainly lateral spikes and female, central spike male at apex; cluster
of male spikes and solitary female spike; or solitary male and female spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely entomophilous. Male flowers subtended by an entire or 3-lobed bract; bracteoles 2 or absent; sepals 0-4, adnate
to receptacle when present; stamens 3-40(-100), inserted
on receptacle; filaments
short to nearly absent, free
, 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with an entire or 3-lobed bracts; bracteoles 2 or 3 (or absent) ; sepals 0-4, adnate to ovary, free at apex; gynoecium of 2 carpels united into an inferior ovary
, 1-loculed, but at base 2-4(-8) -loculed; style 1, short or elongate
, rarely absent; stigmas 2, carinal or commissural
, sometimes 4-lobed, plumose
; ovule 1, orthotropous
. Fruiting spike elongate, and pendulous or short and erect, rarely conelike. Fruit a drupelike nut, 2-4(-8) -chambered at base, with a dehiscent
or indehiscent husk
, or a 2- or 3-winged or disc-winged nutlet
. Seed solitary, without endosperm. Cotyledons 4-lobed, much contorted. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = (28), 32, (64) .
Nine genera and 60 or more species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of the N hemisphere; seven genera (one endemic) and 20 species (seven endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, 3-50 m.
light to dark gray or gray-brown, smooth
or split into ridges
purplish brown, terete
, stout, sparsely to densely covered with glands
and capitate-glandular hairs
, sometimes also with scales
or fasciculate hairs, early in season
hairs; leaf scars
triangular or 3-lobed, large; pith
. Bud scales valvate
, densely hirsute
. Leaves usually odd-, sometimes even-pinnate; petiole
and rachis with indument
as twigs. Leaflets
5-25, sessile or subsessile
, often aromatic
in size or median
leaflets largest, (2.5-) 4.3-15(-17.5) × 0.8-6.5 cm; surfaces usually with nonglandular hairs (simple
and/or fasciculate), glandular
hairs, sessile glands, and/or scales, sometimes glabrous
catkins solitary from 2d-year twigs, sessile; stamens 7-50 per flower, glabrous or pilose
flowers solitary or in terminal
. Fruits nuts enclosed in husks
, not compressed
; husks thick, indehiscent; nuts tan, neither compressed nor angled
, or smooth; shells
thick. Seeds sweet. x
Species 21: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Eurasia .
Juglans is a very important source of edible nuts, dyes, and wood for cabinet work, furniture, and construction. Juglans regia Linnaeus, the walnut of commerce, is widely cultivated in California; it is easily distinguished from native species by its leaves with 5-11 broad, entire leaflets and nuts with thin rugulose shells, not grooved or ridged. Because of its sensitivity to native pathogens , J. regia is usually grown as stem-grafts on roots of native or hybrid walnuts (see discussion under J. hindsii). Occasional seedlings of J. regia have been reported from the vicinity of cultivated plants , but these seldom, if ever, live to maturity.
The growth form , bark, and fruit are important taxonomically in Juglans, but these usually are not available on herbarium specimens. As with many woody plants , the first one or two leaves of the season (i.e. , the lowermost leaves on the twig ) are sometimes atypical in structure, having broader, blunter leaflets. The fasciculate hairs on the veins normally have more rays than those on the blade . In addition to the types of hairs described below, small multiradiate hairs are found on the immature twigs, petioles, rachises, and midribs . They are usually gone when the leaf is fully expanded, but they may persist for a short time afterwards.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Juglandanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Muhl. Publication : in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. Neue Schr. iii. (1801) 390; Willd. Sp. Pl. iv . 458
Members of the genus Juglans
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 82 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
J. ailanthifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. ailanthifolia var. cordiformis (Heartnut) · J. ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. australis (Nogal Criollo) · J. bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. boliviana (Bolivian Walnut) · J. californica (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. californica S.Watson var. californica S.Watson (Southern California Black Walnut) · J. californica var. californica (California Walnut) · J. cinerea (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Bountiful' (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Loumis' (Butternut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw1' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw3' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cww' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Frank' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Imshu' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Locket' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Marvel' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Mitchell Hybrid' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Rhodes' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Simcoe' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Stealth' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Wright' (Heartnut) · J. hindsii (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. illinoinensis (Pecan) · J. intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. jamaicensis (Walnut) · J. major (Arizona Black Walnut) · J. mandshurica (Manchurian Walnut) · J. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (Stewarts Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (I.M.Johnst.) W.Manning (Stewart's Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa subsp. major (Little Walnut) · J. neotropica (Andean Walnut) · J. nigra (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Beineke 11' (Black Walnut 'beineke 11') · J. nigra 'Black Gem' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Daniels' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Emma Kay' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Football 2' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Krause' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Kwik Krop' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Laciniata' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Lamb's Curly' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Ridgeway' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Rowher' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sauber 1' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Schrieber' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sparrow' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Surprise' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Black' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Myers' (Black Walnut) · J. regia (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia var. Carpathian (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Allegheny' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Bedco 1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Broadview' (Dwarf English Walnut) · J. regia 'Cascade' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Champion' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'China-B' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Coble #2' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Colby' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Greenhaven' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Hansen' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Kaiser' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Ky Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Lake' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Looking Glass' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Mckinster' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Northern Prize' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Perry' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Purpurea' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Reda' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'S-1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Shiawassee' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Somers' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Utah Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. × bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. x intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. 'Royal' (Walnut)
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- Botany of the northern and middle states, or, A description of the plants found in the United States, north of Virginia arranged according to the natural system, with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnaean system--a sketch of the rudiments of botany, and a glossary of terms / by Lewis C. Beck. Albany: Webster and Skinners, 1833. url p. 336.
- Compendium floræ philadelphicæ: containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of ten miles around Philadelphia / by William P.C. Barton. Philadelphia: published by M. Carey, 1818. url p. 178, p. 179.
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- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its environs, with their generic and specific characters, synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. Boston, Cummings and Hilliard, 1814. url p. 229.
- Hortus lignosus londinensis: or, A catalogue of all the ligneous plants, indigenous and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, cultivated in the gardens and grounds in the neighbourhood of London: with all their synonymes, scientific and By J. C. Loudon. London, The author, 1838. url p. 95.
- Loudon, J. C. Loudon's Hortus britannicus.A catalogue of all the plants indigenous, cultivated in, or introduced to Britain. Part I. The Linnaean arrangement... Part II. The Jussieuean arrangement... /Edited by J. C. Loudon. 1890 London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1830. url p. 384.
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- Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico) / by Charles S. Sargent. Washington [D.C.]: G.P.O., 1884. url p. 132.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 793.
- Sweet's Hortus britannicus: or a catalogue of plants cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain, arranged in natural orders / by Robert Sweet. London: J. Ridgway, 1826. url p. 97.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia and dictionary of rural affairs: embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry / adapted to the comprehension of unscientific readers by Gouverneur Emerson. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1844. url p. 621.
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- The North American sylva, or, A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, not described in the work of F. Andrew Michaux and containing all the forest trees discovered in the Rocky Mountains, the territory of Oregon, down to the shores of the Pacific and into the confines of California, as well as in various parts of th Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 1842. url .
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- The farmer's encyclopædia, and dictionary of rural affairs; embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry. Adapted to the comprehension of unscientific readers. .. By Cuthbert W. Johnson. .. Adapted to the United States by Gouverneur Emerson. Philadelphia, Carey and Hart, 1844. url p. 621.
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- The silva of North America: a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent. .. illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. .. 14 1902 Boston, New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1891-1902. url p. 128, p. 153, p. 170.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 601.
- Trees and shrubs; an abridgment of the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture LondonF. Warne1875 url p. 739.
- Kuang Ko-zen & Lu An-ming. 1979. Juglandaceae. In: Kuang Ko-zen & Li Pei-chun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 21: 6-44.
- McGranahan, G. H. and P. B. Catlin. 1987. Juglans rootstocks. In: R. C. Rom and R. F. Carlson, eds. 1987. Rootstocks for Fruit Crops. New York. Pp. 411-450.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10683559
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15529382
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:442339-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 442339-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3466534
- Anmin Lu, Donald E. Stone & L. J. Grauke "Juglandaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Alan T. Whittemore & Donald E. Stone "Juglans". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]