Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
California Walnut, Northern California Black Walnut, California Black Walnut, S California Black Walnut, Southern California walnut, Southern California Black Walnut, Southern California Walnut
Common Names in Spanish:
Nogal De California
Common Names in unspecified:
Southern California Walnut
or rarely shrubs
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, monoecious or rarely dioecious; bark
tight (or exfoliating) . Branchlets
with solid or chambered
buds subglobose or ovoid
, naked or with scales
. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate (or opposite), odd- or even-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolate
, rarely simple
, peltate scales, often resinous
, particularly conspicuous
abaxially on young leaves and twigs
serrate or rarely entire. Inflorescences pendulous or sometimes erect
or terminal, on reduced shoots
arising on branchlets of previous year (old growth) or on current
yearâ€™s growth (new growth), of several types: androgynous panicle with male, lateral spikes and female, central spike; androgynous panicle with male, mainly lateral spikes and female, central spike male at apex; cluster
of male spikes and solitary female spike; or solitary male and female spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely entomophilous. Male flowers subtended by an entire or 3-lobed bract; bracteoles 2 or absent; sepals 0-4, adnate
to receptacle when present; stamens 3-40(-100), inserted
on receptacle; filaments
short to nearly absent, free
, 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with an entire or 3-lobed bracts; bracteoles 2 or 3 (or absent) ; sepals 0-4, adnate to ovary, free at apex; gynoecium of 2 carpels united into an inferior ovary
, 1-loculed, but at base 2-4(-8) -loculed; style 1, short or elongate
, rarely absent; stigmas 2, carinal or commissural
, sometimes 4-lobed, plumose
; ovule 1, orthotropous
. Fruiting spike elongate, and pendulous or short and erect, rarely conelike. Fruit a drupelike nut, 2-4(-8) -chambered at base, with a dehiscent
or indehiscent husk
, or a 2- or 3-winged or disc-winged nutlet
. Seed solitary, without endosperm. Cotyledons 4-lobed, much contorted. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = (28), 32, (64) .
Nine genera and 60 or more species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of the N hemisphere; seven genera (one endemic) and 20 species (seven endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, 3-50 m.
light to dark gray or gray-brown, smooth
or split into ridges
purplish brown, terete
, stout, sparsely to densely covered with glands
and capitate-glandular hairs
, sometimes also with scales
or fasciculate hairs, early in season
hairs; leaf scars
triangular or 3-lobed, large; pith
. Bud scales valvate
, densely hirsute
. Leaves usually odd-, sometimes even-pinnate; petiole
and rachis with indument
as twigs. Leaflets
5-25, sessile or subsessile
, often aromatic
in size or median
leaflets largest, (2.5-) 4.3-15(-17.5) × 0.8-6.5 cm; surfaces usually with nonglandular hairs (simple
and/or fasciculate), glandular
hairs, sessile glands, and/or scales, sometimes glabrous
catkins solitary from 2d-year twigs, sessile; stamens 7-50 per flower, glabrous or pilose
flowers solitary or in terminal
. Fruits nuts enclosed in husks
, not compressed
; husks thick, indehiscent; nuts tan, neither compressed nor angled
, or smooth; shells
thick. Seeds sweet. x
Species 21: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Eurasia .
Juglans is a very important source of edible nuts, dyes, and wood for cabinet work, furniture, and construction. Juglans regia Linnaeus, the walnut of commerce, is widely cultivated in California; it is easily distinguished from native species by its leaves with 5-11 broad, entire leaflets and nuts with thin rugulose shells, not grooved or ridged. Because of its sensitivity to native pathogens , J. regia is usually grown as stem-grafts on roots of native or hybrid walnuts (see discussion under J. hindsii). Occasional seedlings of J. regia have been reported from the vicinity of cultivated plants , but these seldom, if ever, live to maturity.
The growth form , bark, and fruit are important taxonomically in Juglans, but these usually are not available on herbarium specimens. As with many woody plants , the first one or two leaves of the season (i.e. , the lowermost leaves on the twig ) are sometimes atypical in structure, having broader, blunter leaflets. The fasciculate hairs on the veins normally have more rays than those on the blade . In addition to the types of hairs described below, small multiradiate hairs are found on the immature twigs, petioles, rachises, and midribs . They are usually gone when the leaf is fully expanded, but they may persist for a short time afterwards.
Species Juglans californica
or small trees
, to 6-9 m.
light or medium gray, divided
into rough plates
with distal edge
of leaf scar
shallowly so, glabrescent
by poorly defined velvety
, somewhat flattened,
Leaves 15-24 cm; petiole
2-5 cm. Leaflets
usually narrowly oblong-elliptic to lance-elliptic, occasionally
or weakly falcate
, 4.3-9.5 × 1.6-2.6
finely serrate, apex rounded
to acute; surfaces abaxially
without tufts of hair in vein
axils, abaxially and adaxially glabrous
but no hairs
, main veins glandular
, often sparsely so,
leaflets without nonglandular hairs (except for multiradiate
early in season
) ; terminal leaflet well developed. Staminate
5-14 cm; stamens 15-35 per flower; pollen sacs
0.6-1 mm. Fruits 1-3,
, 2.1-3.5 cm, smooth
, at first glandular, with scattered
soon glabrescent; nuts depressed-globose, 1.8-2.2(-2.5) cm, shallowly
, surface between grooves
Juglans californica is the most distinctive western walnut, but some care must be taken in identifying it. The distinctive leaflet shape of J. californica is occasionally replicated by early-season leaves of other species. Furthermore, J. californica is distinctive in lacking simple and fasciculate hairs on the leaves, but like most other walnuts, multiradiate hairs are normally present on the young vegetative growth (stems, petioles, and midribs ) in the spring . The hairs are usually deciduous early in the growing season . They have short (0.1-0.2 mm), crisped rays and are never clustered or especially associated with vein axils. The fasciculate hairs found in all of our other species (except sometimes J. microcarpa ) are persistent , have longer (0.3-0.4 mm), straight rays, and are concentrated in clusters abaxially in the axils of the main lateral veins. [source]
Habit: Tree , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: chartreuse, yellow-green
Size: 20-30' tall.
Hillsides and canyons ; 30-900 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,278 meters (0 to 4,193 feet).
Culture: Space 30-40' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Juglandanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Juglans rupestris Engelm. ex Torr. var. major Torr.
Publishing author : S.Watson Publication : Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts x . (1875) 349.
Members of the genus Juglans
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 82 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
J. ailanthifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. ailanthifolia var. cordiformis (Heartnut) · J. ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. australis (Nogal Criollo) · J. bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. boliviana (Bolivian Walnut) · J. californica (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. californica S.Watson var. californica S.Watson (Southern California Black Walnut) · J. californica var. californica (California Walnut) · J. cinerea (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Bountiful' (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Loumis' (Butternut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw1' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw3' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cww' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Frank' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Imshu' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Locket' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Marvel' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Mitchell Hybrid' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Rhodes' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Simcoe' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Stealth' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Wright' (Heartnut) · J. hindsii (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. illinoinensis (Pecan) · J. intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. jamaicensis (Walnut) · J. major (Arizona Black Walnut) · J. mandshurica (Manchurian Walnut) · J. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (Stewarts Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (I.M.Johnst.) W.Manning (Stewart's Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa subsp. major (Little Walnut) · J. neotropica (Andean Walnut) · J. nigra (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Beineke 11' (Black Walnut 'beineke 11') · J. nigra 'Black Gem' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Daniels' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Emma Kay' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Football 2' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Krause' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Kwik Krop' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Laciniata' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Lamb's Curly' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Ridgeway' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Rowher' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sauber 1' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Schrieber' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sparrow' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Surprise' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Black' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Myers' (Black Walnut) · J. regia (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia var. Carpathian (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Allegheny' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Bedco 1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Broadview' (Dwarf English Walnut) · J. regia 'Cascade' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Champion' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'China-B' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Coble #2' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Colby' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Greenhaven' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Hansen' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Kaiser' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Ky Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Lake' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Looking Glass' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Mckinster' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Northern Prize' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Perry' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Purpurea' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Reda' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'S-1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Shiawassee' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Somers' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Utah Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. × bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. x intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. 'Royal' (Walnut)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 01, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645912
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19249
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13731952
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:289297-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 20728
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19249
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 30014392
- IUCN ID: 217049
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDJUG02020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: JUCA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 44785
- Anmin Lu, Donald E. Stone & L. J. Grauke "Juglandaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Alan T. Whittemore & Donald E. Stone "Juglans". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Juglans californica". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 158.660 meters (520.538 feet), Standard Deviation = 416.210 based on 41 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]