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Common Names in English:
Northern California Black Walnut, Hinds´ Black Walnut, Hinds´ Walnut, Hinds's Black Walnut, Northern California walnut, Northern California Walnut, Walnut
Common Names in German:
Common Names in unspecified:
Northern California Walnut
or rarely shrubs
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, monoecious or rarely dioecious; bark
tight (or exfoliating) . Branchlets
with solid or chambered
buds subglobose or ovoid
, naked or with scales
. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate (or opposite), odd- or even-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolate
, rarely simple
, peltate scales, often resinous
, particularly conspicuous
abaxially on young leaves and twigs
serrate or rarely entire. Inflorescences pendulous or sometimes erect
or terminal, on reduced shoots
arising on branchlets of previous year (old growth) or on current
yearâ€™s growth (new growth), of several types: androgynous panicle with male, lateral spikes and female, central spike; androgynous panicle with male, mainly lateral spikes and female, central spike male at apex; cluster
of male spikes and solitary female spike; or solitary male and female spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely entomophilous. Male flowers subtended by an entire or 3-lobed bract; bracteoles 2 or absent; sepals 0-4, adnate
to receptacle when present; stamens 3-40(-100), inserted
on receptacle; filaments
short to nearly absent, free
, 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with an entire or 3-lobed bracts; bracteoles 2 or 3 (or absent) ; sepals 0-4, adnate to ovary, free at apex; gynoecium of 2 carpels united into an inferior ovary
, 1-loculed, but at base 2-4(-8) -loculed; style 1, short or elongate
, rarely absent; stigmas 2, carinal or commissural
, sometimes 4-lobed, plumose
; ovule 1, orthotropous
. Fruiting spike elongate, and pendulous or short and erect, rarely conelike. Fruit a drupelike nut, 2-4(-8) -chambered at base, with a dehiscent
or indehiscent husk
, or a 2- or 3-winged or disc-winged nutlet
. Seed solitary, without endosperm. Cotyledons 4-lobed, much contorted. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = (28), 32, (64) .
Nine genera and 60 or more species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of the N hemisphere; seven genera (one endemic) and 20 species (seven endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, 3-50 m.
light to dark gray or gray-brown, smooth
or split into ridges
purplish brown, terete
, stout, sparsely to densely covered with glands
and capitate-glandular hairs
, sometimes also with scales
or fasciculate hairs, early in season
hairs; leaf scars
triangular or 3-lobed, large; pith
. Bud scales valvate
, densely hirsute
. Leaves usually odd-, sometimes even-pinnate; petiole
and rachis with indument
as twigs. Leaflets
5-25, sessile or subsessile
, often aromatic
in size or median
leaflets largest, (2.5-) 4.3-15(-17.5) × 0.8-6.5 cm; surfaces usually with nonglandular hairs (simple
and/or fasciculate), glandular
hairs, sessile glands, and/or scales, sometimes glabrous
catkins solitary from 2d-year twigs, sessile; stamens 7-50 per flower, glabrous or pilose
flowers solitary or in terminal
. Fruits nuts enclosed in husks
, not compressed
; husks thick, indehiscent; nuts tan, neither compressed nor angled
, or smooth; shells
thick. Seeds sweet. x
Species 21: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Eurasia .
Juglans is a very important source of edible nuts, dyes, and wood for cabinet work, furniture, and construction. Juglans regia Linnaeus, the walnut of commerce, is widely cultivated in California; it is easily distinguished from native species by its leaves with 5-11 broad, entire leaflets and nuts with thin rugulose shells, not grooved or ridged. Because of its sensitivity to native pathogens , J. regia is usually grown as stem-grafts on roots of native or hybrid walnuts (see discussion under J. hindsii). Occasional seedlings of J. regia have been reported from the vicinity of cultivated plants , but these seldom, if ever, live to maturity.
The growth form , bark, and fruit are important taxonomically in Juglans, but these usually are not available on herbarium specimens. As with many woody plants , the first one or two leaves of the season (i.e. , the lowermost leaves on the twig ) are sometimes atypical in structure, having broader, blunter leaflets. The fasciculate hairs on the veins normally have more rays than those on the blade . In addition to the types of hairs described below, small multiradiate hairs are found on the immature twigs, petioles, rachises, and midribs . They are usually gone when the leaf is fully expanded, but they may persist for a short time afterwards.
Species Juglans hindsii
, 6-23 m.
light or medium gray, split into smooth
with distal edge
of leaf scar
shallowly to deeply
, not bordered
by well-defined band
, flattened, 6-8 mm.
22-45 cm; petiole
3-8 cm. Leaflets
13-21, narrowly triangular to
or weakly falcate
, (5.6-) 7.3-13 × (1-)
1.9-2.8 cm, margins
serrate, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous
or with sparse glands
, sparse glands and few capitate-glandular hairs
along major veins, fasciculate hairs conspicuously tufted
in axils of proximal
veins, sometimes also on adjacent
edges of midrib
, adaxially glabrous or with scattered scales, major
veins glabrous or with sparse scattering of glands and few capitate-glandular
hairs, without nonglandular hairs; terminal leaflet well developed.
catkins 6-15 cm; stamens 20-40 per flower; pollen sacs
1-1.4 mm. Fruits 1-2, globose
, 3.5-5 cm; nuts ovoid
2.4-3.2 cm, smooth or nearly so or shallowly and indistinctly ridged
Before 1850, Juglans hindsii was restricted to a few locations (J. R. Griffin and W. B . Critchfield 1972). It has been widely used as a rootstock for grafting J. regia and has been planted extensively in many parts of California for this purpose. It is now naturalized in many areas where it apparently did not occur before the introduction of commercial walnut growing. Possibly some of these naturalized populations are introgressed with J. nigra, since spontaneous hybridization between J. hindsii and J. nigra has been reported in areas where both species have been planted. These hybrids are difficult to distinguish from J. hindsii unless fruit are present. Currently most commercial walnut orchards use hybrid rootstocks, usually J. hindsii × J. regia (G. H. McGranahan and P. B. Catlin 1987). [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May.
Along streams , sometimes on disturbed slopes ; of conservation concern; 0-300 m .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Juglandanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Juglans californica hindsii Jepson • Juglans californica S. Watson Var. hindsii Jepson • Juglans californica var. hindsii Jepson
: Juglandaceae Juglans californica S.Watson var. hindsii
Basionym author: (Jeps.)
Basionym: Juglandaceae Juglans californica S.Watson var. hindsii Jeps.
Basionym author: (Jeps.)
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Juglans
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 82 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
J. ailanthifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. ailanthifolia var. cordiformis (Heartnut) · J. ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. australis (Nogal Criollo) · J. bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. boliviana (Bolivian Walnut) · J. californica (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. californica S.Watson var. californica S.Watson (Southern California Black Walnut) · J. californica var. californica (California Walnut) · J. cinerea (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Bountiful' (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Loumis' (Butternut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw1' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw3' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cww' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Frank' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Imshu' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Locket' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Marvel' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Mitchell Hybrid' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Rhodes' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Simcoe' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Stealth' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Wright' (Heartnut) · J. hindsii (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. illinoinensis (Pecan) · J. intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. jamaicensis (Walnut) · J. major (Arizona Black Walnut) · J. mandshurica (Manchurian Walnut) · J. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (Stewarts Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (I.M.Johnst.) W.Manning (Stewart's Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa subsp. major (Little Walnut) · J. neotropica (Andean Walnut) · J. nigra (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Beineke 11' (Black Walnut 'beineke 11') · J. nigra 'Black Gem' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Daniels' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Emma Kay' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Football 2' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Krause' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Kwik Krop' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Laciniata' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Lamb's Curly' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Ridgeway' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Rowher' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sauber 1' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Schrieber' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sparrow' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Surprise' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Black' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Myers' (Black Walnut) · J. regia (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia var. Carpathian (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Allegheny' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Bedco 1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Broadview' (Dwarf English Walnut) · J. regia 'Cascade' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Champion' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'China-B' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Coble #2' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Colby' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Greenhaven' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Hansen' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Kaiser' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Ky Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Lake' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Looking Glass' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Mckinster' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Northern Prize' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Perry' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Purpurea' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Reda' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'S-1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Shiawassee' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Somers' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Utah Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. × bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. x intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. 'Royal' (Walnut)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 307.
- An introduction to California plant life Berkeley: University of California Press, [c1974] url p. 121.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 61.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 139, p. 140, p. 148, p. 266, p. 44.
- Genetics in relation to agriculture, New York, McGraw-Hill book company, inc.; [etc., etc.]1918. url p. 622.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1979 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 131.
- Microbiology for agricultural and domestic science students. Philadelphia, Blakiston[c1917] url .
- Microbiology, a text-book of microörganisms, general and applied. Contributors: F.T. Bioletti. .. R.E. Buchanan. .. [and others] ed. by Charles E. Marshall. .. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co.[c1921] url p. 965.
- Microbiology; a text-book of microörganisms, general and applied. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1921] url p. 965.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , p. 146.
- North American trees (exclusive of Mexico and tropical United States) A handbook designed for field use, with plates and distribution maps. Ames, Iowa State University Press url p. 134.
- Pamphlets on forestry in California. [1900?- url , p. 146, p. 147, p. 202, p. 357.
- Pamphlets on silviculture. [1899- url , p. 74, p. 75.
- Shade and ornamental trees of California, by Merritt B. Pratt, state forester. Sacramento?1922? url p. 110, p. 110.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 40 1980 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 398.
- The Journal of heredity. Washington, etc., American Genetic Association url p. 523, p. 523.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url p. 257.
- University of California publications in agricultural sciences. Berkeley, University of California Press. url , , , , , , , p. 75, p. 78.
- Kuang Ko-zen & Lu An-ming. 1979. Juglandaceae. In: Kuang Ko-zen & Li Pei-chun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 21: 6-44.
- McGranahan, G. H. and P. B. Catlin. 1987. Juglans rootstocks. In: R. C. Rom and R. F. Carlson, eds. 1987. Rootstocks for Fruit Crops. New York. Pp. 411-450.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 01, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645914
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19251
- GRIN Nomen Number: 20747
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19251
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 131754-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDJUG02040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: JUCAH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 44784
- Anmin Lu, Donald E. Stone & L. J. Grauke "Juglandaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Alan T. Whittemore & Donald E. Stone "Juglans". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Juglans hindsii". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]