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Jasminum sambac

(Arabian Jasmine)

Overview

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Shrub from India, with sweet-scented white flowers in single (pikake lahilahi), or double forms (pikake pupupu).

Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Chinese:

Mo Li Hua

Common Names in English:

Arabian Jasmine, Asian Jasmine, Asiatic Jasmine, Pikake, Sacred Jasmine, Sambac Jasmine, Zambak

Common Names in French:

Jasmin D´arabie

Common Names in Hindi:

Bel, Moghra, Motia, बेल, मोघरा, मोिटया

Common Names in Italian:

Gesimino D'arabia, Mugherine

Common Names in Portuguese:

Bogarim, Jasmim

Common Names in Spanish:

Jazmín De Arabia

Common Names in Tamil:

Maligai

Description

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Family Oleaceae

Trees or erect or scandent shrubs . Branches and branchlets lenticellate . Leaves opposite, rarely alternate or whorled , simple , trifoliolate , or pinnately compound , without stipules; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary , in cymes, panicles, racemes , umbels, or fascicles. Flowers actinomorphic , bisexual , rarely unisexual or polygamous and plants monoecious, dioecious, or polygamodioecious. Calyx 4(-16) -lobed or -parted, rarely absent. Corolla 4(-16) -lobed, sometimes almost free to base , rarely absent; lobes sometimes united in pairs at base or into a very short tube . Stamens 2(-4), inserted on corolla tube or hypogynous; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; pollen 3-colpate or 3-colporate. Ovary superior, 2-loculed; ovules 2 in each locule, sometimes 1 or numerous . Style 1 or absent; stigma 2-lobed or capitate. Fruit a drupe, berry, capsule, or samara. Seeds with straight embryo, with or without endosperm; radicle curved upward or downward.

About 28 genera and over 400 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions of world, but mainly in Asia. China has 10 genera and 160 species (95 endemic) and is the center of diversity for the genera Forsythia, Syringa, Osmanthus, and Ligustrum.

Many genera are important economically: Fraxinus and Forsythia (medicinal, ornamental ) ; Jasminum, Osmanthus, and Syringa (spice, ornamental) ; Olea (oil ) ; and Fraxinus (timber) .[1]

Genus Jasminum

Trees or erect or scandent shrubs , evergreen or deciduous. Branchlets terete or angular and grooved . Leaves opposite or alternate, rarely whorled , simple , 3-foliolate, or odd-pinnate; petiole usually articulated. Inflorescences basically cymose , in panicles, racemes , corymbs, umbels, or heads ; bracts subulate or linear , sometimes leafy. Flowers bisexual , usually heterostylous, usually fragrant. Calyx campanulate , cupular, or funnelform , 4-16-lobed. Corolla white or yellow, rarely red or purple, salverform or funnelform; lobes 4-16, imbricate in bud, sometimes doubled in cultivation. Stamens 2, included , inserted about middle of corolla tube ; filaments short; anthers dorsifixed , introrse . Ovules 1 or 2 in each locule. Style filiform ; stigma capitate or 2-lobed. Fruit a berry, didymous or one half aborted. Seeds without endosperm; radicle downward.

More than 200 species: Africa, Asia, Australia, South Pacific Islands, one species in the Mediterranean region; 43 species in China.[2]

Physical Description

Species Jasminum sambac

Shrubs erect or scandent , to 3 m. Branchlets terete or slightly compressed , sometimes hollow, sparsely pubescent . Leaves opposite, simple ; petiole 2-6 mm, articulate , pubescent; leaf blade orbicular to elliptic or obovate , 4-12.5 × 2-7.5 cm, papery , glabrous except for tufted hairs at vein axils abaxially, both ends blunt , sometimes base subcordate ; primary veins 4-6 on each side of midrib . Cymes terminal , (1 or) 3(or 5) -flowered; bracts subulate , 4-8 mm. Flowers very fragrant. Pedicel 0.3-2 cm. Calyx glabrous or sparsely pubescent; lobes 8-9, linear , 5-7 mm. Corolla white; tube 0.7-1.5 cm; lobes oblong to suborbicular , 5-9 mm broad. Berry purple-black, globose , ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 26*. [source]

Habit: Vine , Shrub

Flowers: Very fragrant white flowers. Blooms June, July, August, September. Jasmine tea is made from the blossoms . • Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: near white, white

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 8-10' tall.

Habitat

Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -6.75 meters (-22.15 feet).[3]

Biome: Coastal.

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Growth

Culture: Space 6-9" apart.

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Outdoors: partial sun. Indoors: partial to full sun .

Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly spring through fall , less in fall and winter.

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 11. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Nyctanthes sambac Linnaeus

Notes

Publishing author : [Soland.] Publication : Hortus Kew. (W. Aiton) 1: 8 1789

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Jasminum

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 39 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

J. adenophyllum (Bluegrape Jasmine) · J. aemulum (Malulee) · J. angulare (South African Jasmine) · J. beesianum (Beesianum Jasmine) · J. dichotomum (Everblooming Jasmine) · J. elongatum (Ear-Leaf Jasmine) · J. floridum (Florida Yellow Jasmine) · J. fluminense (Azores Jasmine) · J. fruticans (Shrubby Jasmine) · J. humile (Italian Yellow Jasmine) · J. humile f. wallichianum (Dr. Wallichs Nipal Jasmine) · J. humile var. revolutum (Italian Jasmine) · J. laurifolium f. nitidum (Confederate Jasmine) · J. mesnyi (Chinese Jasmine) · J. molle (Indian Jui) · J. multiflorum (Angel Hair Jasmine) · J. nitidum (Angel Wing Jasmine) · J. nudiflorum (Winter Jasmine) · J. nudiflorum 'Mystique' (Winter Jasmine) · J. odoratissimum (Florida Jasmine) · J. officinale (Poet's Jasmine) · J. officinale 'Argenteovariegatum' (Variegated Jasmine) · J. officinale 'Fiona Sunrise' (Poets Jasmine) · J. officinale 'Grandiflorum' (Spanish Jasmine) · J. parkeri (Dwarf Flowering Jasmine) · J. polyanthum (French Perfume) · J. rex (Jasminum Rex) · J. sambac (Arabian Jasmine) · J. sambac var. kerianum (Arabian Jasmine) · J. sambac var. nemocalyx (Arabian Jasmine) · J. sambac 'Belle of India' (Asiatic Jasmine) · J. sambac 'Grand Duke' (Arabian Jasmine) · J. sambac 'Grand Duke of Tuscany' (Asiatic Jasmine) · J. sambac 'Maid of India' (Arabian Jasmine) · J. sambac 'Maid of Orleans' (Asiatic Jasmine) · J. simplicifolium (Wax Jasmine) · J. simplicifolium suavissimum (Jasmine) · J. tortuosum (African Jasmine) · J. volubile (Wax Jasmine)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Mei-chen Chang, Lien-ching Chiu, Zhi Wei & Peter S. Green "Oleaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 272. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. "Jasminum". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 307. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Standard Deviation = 122.150 based on 8 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-07