Vine , Climber . I. aquatica is commonly introduced by immigrants as a native herb rich in iron and with medicinal properties. However the plant is highly invasive, forming dense mats over the surface of water bodies such as lakes , ponds , marshes, canals, and ditches. It is also found in very moist soils such as the muddy banks along streams . The weed spreads rapidly from plant fragments and its floating seeds allow effective colonisation of new areas. Aquatic herbicides , whilst generally effective, are not specific enough to be used in many sensitive areas such as the Everglades , making eradication very difficult. Commonly used as a food plant in Asia (PIER , 2003). Popular among some recent immigrants as a common potherb from the homeland and has been studied in Florida as a vegetable crop . This is because the plant of its rich iron content (Langeland K .A. and Burks K.C, 1999). I. aquatica is relatively rich in S-methyl methionine (Vitamin U) and is used traditionally to treat gastric and intestinal disorders. Furthermore it has been found to have insulin-like properties acting as an anti-hyperglycaemic (Malalavidhane, Wickramasinghe and Jansz, 2000).
- Commonly cultivated as a pot herb, Ipomoea aquatica is adapted to a warm, moist climate and cannot survive frost. Several races are recognized (without formal taxonomic designation ) based on growing conditions (terrestrial vs. aquatic ) and plant and flower color (greenish plants with white flowers vs. purplish tinged plants with lilac flowers). The plants have minor medicinal uses and also are used for forage . [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chuuk:
Aseri, Seeri, Seri
Common Names in English:
Chinese Water Spinach, Akankong, Aquatic Morning Glory, Cancon, Chinese Water-Spinach, Chinese Waterspinach, Cultivated Kangkong, Kang Kong, Kangkun, Kangum, Kankan, Kankum, Lili Vai, Lorenzo, Luve Ne Tombithi, Ndrinikava, Ota Karisa, Swamp morning Glory, Swamp Cabbage, Swamp Morning Glory, Swamp Morning-Glory, Swamp Morningglory, Swamp-Cabbage, Te Kang Kong, Tropical Spinach, Ung-Choi, Wa Kumala, Water Bindweed, Water Convolvulus, Water Spinach, Water-Convolvulus, Water-Spinach, White-Flowering Kangkong
Common Names in French:
Liseron D´eau, Liseron D'eau, Patate Aquatique
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hindi:
Kalami-Sag, Kalmi, Kalmi-Sag, Kalmisag, Kalmua, Patua Saga, Patuasag, कलमी साग, कलामी साग, पटुवा
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Italian:
Convolvolo D´acqua, Patata Acquatica, Vilucchio D´acqua
Common Names in Khmer:
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Laotian:
Common Names in Malay:
Kangkong (Indonesia), Kangkung, Kangkung (Malaysia), Kangkung Darat (Indonesia), Kangkung Putih, Kankong, Kankung, Kankung Darat
Common Names in Portuguese:
Batata Aquática, Cancon
Common Names in Spanish:
Batata Acuática, Espinaca Acuática, Espinaca De Agua
Common Names in Swahili:
Common Names in Tagalog:
Common Names in Tamil:
Common Names in Thai:
Paag Boong), Phak Bung (Pak Boong, Phak Thotyot, Phakbung Chin (Pak Boong Chin)
Common Names in Ulithi:
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Common Names in Yapese:
Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
Herbs or shrubs
, often twining
, sometimes prostrate
, or floating. Leaves petiolate
, entire, lobed
, or divided
. Inflorescences mostly axillary
, 1- to many flowered, rarely paniculate
; bracts various. Flowers small to large. Sepals persistent
, equal to unequal, ± enlarged in fruit. Corolla variously colored
, rarely yellow, funnelform
, or salverform
; limb 5-lobed to entire, midpetaline bands
well defined. Stamens included
or exserted; filaments
, usually unequal, dilated
, longitudinally dehiscent
, not twisted; pollen globular
, finely spiny
. Disc ringlike. Ovary 2-4-loculed, 4- or 6-ovuled. Style 1, filiform, included or exserted; stigma capitate, or 2- or 3-globulose. Capsule globose
, 4- or 6-valved. Seeds 4(-6) or fewer, glabrous
Approximately 500 species: widely distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions , especially of North and South America; 29 species in China.
Species Ipomoea aquatica
Herbs annual , terrestrial and repent or floating; axial parts glabrous . Stems terete , thick, hollow, rooting at nodes. Petiole 3-14 cm, glabrous; leaf blade variable, ovate , ovate-lanceolate, oblong , or lanceolate, 3.5-17 X 0.9-8.5 cm, glabrous or rarely pilose , base cordate, sagittate or hastate, occasionally truncate , margin entire or undulate , apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescences 1-3(-5) -flowered; peduncle 1.5-9 cm, base pubescent; bracts squamiform , 1.5-2 mm. Pedicel 1.5-5 cm. Sepals subequal , glabrous; outer 2 ovate-oblong, 7-8 mm, margin whitish, thin, apex obtuse , mucronulate ; inner 3 ovate-elliptic, ca. 8 mm. Corolla white, pink, or lilac, with a darker center, funnelform , 3.5-5 cm, glabrous. Stamens unequal, included . Pistil included; ovary conical , glabrous. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid to globose , ca. 1 cm in diam., woody, tardily dehiscent or ?indehiscent. Seeds densely grayish pubescent , sometimes glabrous. 2n = 30*. [source]
Habit: Vine , Forb/herb
Flowers: Flower Color: lavender, near white, pink, violet, white
Size: 8-10' tall.
: ditches, ponds
, rice paddies, waste
I. aquatica is found in fresh water aquatic habitats (PIER , 2003). I. aquatica has been found primarily in canals and ditches but also invades lakes . It grows well in moist soil or in still to flowing waters (Langeland K .A. and Burks K.C, 1999). I. aquatica dwells in muddy stream banks, freshwater pond and lakes, and marshes. It is confined to the tropics and subtropics zones because it is susceptible to frosts and because it does not grow well when temperatures are below 23.9 degrees Celsius. Because of its prolific growth, this species can invade moist cultivated areas, such as rice and sugar cane fields , and other areas with varying water levels (Fears, UNDATED).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,541 meters (0 to 5,056 feet).
Ecology: I. aquatica forms dense floating mats of intertwined stems over water surfaces, shading out native submersed plants and competing with native emergents. It is considered the second greatest problem plant in the Philippines, where it tends to overgrow freshwater marginal areas. A common to serious weed in many areas in the tropics (Langeland K .A. and Burks K.C, 1999). Masses of tangled vegetation obstruct water flow in drainage and flood control canals. They have infested lakes , ponds , and river shorelines , displacing native plants that are important for fish and wildlife. The veins of the plant create dense impenetrable canopies over small ponds and retention basins creating stagnant water conditions that are ideal breeding environments for mosquitoes (Fears, UNDATED).
Under good conditions, I. aquatica can produce 190,000 kg fresh weight biomass per ha in 9 months. It flowers in the warm months and produces 175-245 seeds per plant during the peak season (Langeland K .A. and Burks K.C, 1999).
Culture: Space 6-8' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Dendrocopos nuttallii (Gambel
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ipomoea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 322 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
I. abrupta (Bush Yam) · I. acuminata 'Blue Dawn' (Blue Dawn Morning Glory) · I. adenioides (Trumpet Flower Morning Glory) · I. alba (Giant Moonflower) · I. alba 'Meekerii' (Moonflower) · I. albivenia (Wild Cotton) · I. amnicola (Red-Center Morning-Glory) · I. ampullacea (Ipomoea) · I. andersonii (Morning Glory) · I. aquatica (Chinese Water Spinach) · I. arachnosperma (Ipomoea) · I. arborescens (Tree Morning Glory) · I. argillicola (Ipomoea) · I. armentalis (Ipomoea) · I. asarifolia (Ipomoea) · I. aurantiaca (Ipomoea) · I. balioclada (Ipomoea) · I. barbatisepala (Canyon Morning-Glory) · I. batatas ('uala) · I. batatas 'Ace of Spades' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Amish White Bunch' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Batas' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Beauregard' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Bermuda White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Betty's' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Blackie' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Black Heart' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Brinkley White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Bunch Porto Rico' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carolina Green' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carolina Purple' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carver' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Centennial' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Continental Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Darby' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Evangeline' (Sweet Potato 'evangeline') · I. batatas 'Frazier White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Jet' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Hernandez' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ivis White Cream' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ivory Jewel' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Japanese' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Jewel' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Korean Purple' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Laceleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Lady Fingers' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Margarita' (Margarita Sweet Potato Vine) · I. batatas 'Martins' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Maryland 810' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Maynard Family White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Memphis Pride' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Millard Cooper' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Nancy Hall' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'New Jewell' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Oakleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Oklahoma Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Henry' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Kentucky' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Orange' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Orange Oakleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Pink Frost' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Poplar Root' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Purple' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Qualls' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Red Ivy Leaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Red Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Regal' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ringley's Porto Rico' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Seki Blapalm' (Sweet Potato 'seki Blapalm') · I. batatas 'Southern Queen' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Spanish Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Stoker Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sumor' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Carolina Bronze' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Caroline Bronze' (Sweet Caroline Bronze Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Caroline Green Yellow' (Ornamental Sweet Potato 'sweet Caroline Green Yellow') · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Light Green' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Purple' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Red' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Tennessee Top Mark' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Terrace Lime' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Tricolor' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Vardaman' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Violetta' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Wakenda' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Hayman' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Jewel' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Queen' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Star' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Triumph' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Willow Leaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Yellow Jersey' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Yellow Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatus 'Margarita' (Margarita Sweet Potato Vine) · I. beraviensis (Hawaiian Bell) · I. biflora (White Woodrose) · I. bolusiana (Ipomoea) · I. bonariensis (Ipomoea)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 10, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), The System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653800
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30759
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14375281
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:268410-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 20138
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30759
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 268410-1
- MoBot NameID: 8500040
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCON0A1W0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: IPRE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 13941
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Clifton E. Nauman "Ipomoea". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 301. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 126.860 meters (416.207 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,052.550 based on 93 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]