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Ipomoea littoralis

(Whiteflower Beach Morning-Glory)

Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Whiteflower Beach Morning-Glory, Whiteflower Beach Morningglory

Description

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Family Convolvulaceae

Herbs or shrubs , usually with twining or climbing stems or erect , often with milky juice. Leaves alternate, simple , entire, dissected , or compound , absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary or in cymes, racemes , panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual , actinomorphic , usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free , often persistent , sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous , funnelform , campanulate , salverform , or urceolate ; limb subentire or deeply lobed . Stamens alternating with corolla lobes , adnate to corolla; filaments filiform , equal or unequal in length ; anthers introrse , laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth or finely spiny . Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal (gynobasic in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves , circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous , smooth or pubescent .

About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.

Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.

The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .

Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.

For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.[1]

Genus Ipomoea

Herbs or shrubs , often twining , sometimes prostrate , erect , or floating. Leaves petiolate , entire, lobed , or divided . Inflorescences mostly axillary , cymose , 1- to many flowered, rarely paniculate ; bracts various. Flowers small to large. Sepals persistent , equal to unequal, ± enlarged in fruit. Corolla variously colored , rarely yellow, funnelform , campanulate , or salverform ; limb 5-lobed to entire, midpetaline bands well defined. Stamens included or exserted; filaments filiform , usually unequal, dilated and pubescent basally; anthers ovate or linear , longitudinally dehiscent , not twisted; pollen globular , pantoporate , finely spiny . Disc ringlike. Ovary 2-4-loculed, 4- or 6-ovuled. Style 1, filiform, included or exserted; stigma capitate, or 2- or 3-globulose. Capsule globose or ovoid , 4- or 6-valved. Seeds 4(-6) or fewer, glabrous or pubescent.

Approximately 500 species: widely distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions , especially of North and South America; 29 species in China.[2]

Physical Description

Species Ipomoea littoralis

Herbs perennial . Stems prostrate , rooting at nodes, or twining , slender, mostly glabrous . Petiole 0.5-7 cm; leaf blade ovate to oblong , occasionally circular or reniform , 1-10 X 1-7.5 cm, glabrous or nearly so, base cordate, margin entire or minutely undulate to angular, or ± 3-lobed, apex acute, obtuse or emarginate , mucronulate . Inflorescences usually 1- (less often few) flowered; peduncle 0.1-3 cm; bracts early deciduous, 1-2 mm. Pedicel 1-4 cm, glabrous. Sepals unequal, glabrous; outer 2 concave , oblong-elliptic, 6-10 mm, apex acute to obtuse; inner 3 elliptic to nearly circular, 0.8-1.2 cm. Corolla pink or pink-purple, with a darker center, funnelform , 3-4.5 cm, glabrous. Stamens included ; filaments unequal, glandular pubescent on basal 1/2. Pistil included; ovary glabrous. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule depressed-globose, ca. 9 mm in diam. Seeds black, ovoid , 3.5-4 mm, glabrous. 2n = 30, 60. [source]

Long confused with Ipomoea gracilis R. Brown, a distinct species that is endemic to Australia; the nomenclature , distribution, and ethnobotanical significance of I. littoralis have been discussed by Austin (Econ. Bot. 45: 251-256. 1991). [source]

According to Xing et al. (Guihaia 14: 151-156. 1994) and Huang et al. (Taiwania 39: 1-26. 1994), Ipomoea gracilis R. Brown occurs on the South China Sea Islands (Nanhai Zhudao) ; however, material was not available for study. It is likely that the plants collected belong to I. littoralis, and not I. gracilis. [source]

Habit: Vine , Subshrub , Forb/herb

Flowers: Flower Color: magenta, near white, pale pink, pink, white

Habitat

Sandy seashores, coastal thickets, forest floors; 0-100 m [3].

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Growth

Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Batatas littoralis (L.) Choisy • C. denticulatus Desrousseaux • Convolvulus littoralis Linnaeus • Ipomoea Batatas Littoralis • Ipomoea denticulata (Desrousseaux) Choisy • Ipomoea gracilis auct. non R. Br. • Syst. Nat. (Ed. 10) 924. 1759

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Ipomoea

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 322 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

I. abrupta (Bush Yam) · I. acuminata 'Blue Dawn' (Blue Dawn Morning Glory) · I. adenioides (Trumpet Flower Morning Glory) · I. alba (Giant Moonflower) · I. alba 'Meekerii' (Moonflower) · I. albivenia (Wild Cotton) · I. amnicola (Red-Center Morning-Glory) · I. ampullacea (Ipomoea) · I. andersonii (Morning Glory) · I. aquatica (Chinese Water Spinach) · I. arachnosperma (Ipomoea) · I. arborescens (Tree Morning Glory) · I. argillicola (Ipomoea) · I. armentalis (Ipomoea) · I. asarifolia (Ipomoea) · I. aurantiaca (Ipomoea) · I. balioclada (Ipomoea) · I. barbatisepala (Canyon Morning-Glory) · I. batatas ('uala) · I. batatas 'Ace of Spades' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Amish White Bunch' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Batas' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Beauregard' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Bermuda White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Betty's' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Blackie' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Black Heart' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Brinkley White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Bunch Porto Rico' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carolina Green' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carolina Purple' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Carver' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Centennial' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Continental Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Darby' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Evangeline' (Sweet Potato 'evangeline') · I. batatas 'Frazier White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Jet' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Georgia Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Hernandez' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ivis White Cream' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ivory Jewel' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Japanese' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Jewel' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Korean Purple' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Laceleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Lady Fingers' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Margarita' (Margarita Sweet Potato Vine) · I. batatas 'Martins' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Maryland 810' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Maynard Family White' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Memphis Pride' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Millard Cooper' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Nancy Hall' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'New Jewell' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Oakleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Oklahoma Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Henry' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Kentucky' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Old Orange' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Orange Oakleaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Pink Frost' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Poplar Root' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Purple' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Qualls' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Red Ivy Leaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Red Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Regal' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Ringley's Porto Rico' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Seki Blapalm' (Sweet Potato 'seki Blapalm') · I. batatas 'Southern Queen' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Spanish Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Stoker Red' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sumor' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Carolina Bronze' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Caroline Bronze' (Sweet Caroline Bronze Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Caroline Green Yellow' (Ornamental Sweet Potato 'sweet Caroline Green Yellow') · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Light Green' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Purple' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Sweet Heart Red' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Tennessee Top Mark' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Terrace Lime' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Tricolor' (Ornamental Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Vardaman' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Violetta' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Wakenda' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Hayman' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Jewel' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Queen' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Star' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'White Triumph' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Willow Leaf' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Yellow Jersey' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatas 'Yellow Yam' (Sweet Potato) · I. batatus 'Margarita' (Margarita Sweet Potato Vine) · I. beraviensis (Hawaiian Bell) · I. biflora (White Woodrose) · I. bolusiana (Ipomoea) · I. bonariensis (Ipomoea)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 04, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Clifton E. Nauman "Ipomoea". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 301. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. "Ipomoea littoralis". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 307. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-04-14