Common Names in English:
Box-Leaved Holly, Box-Leaf Holly, Boxleaf Holly, Japanese Holly
Usually dioecious shrubs
. Leaves coriaceous
, often spinose
and shiny above; stipules caducous
. Flowers 4-5-merous, bisexual
with vestigial remains of either sex. Corolla rotate. Style absent or obsolete
, stigma lobed
. Drupe fleshy
, pyrenes 2-5, rarely more.
400 species, tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. Represented in Pakistan by 2 species (excluding 1 cultivated species) .
Species Ilex crenata
Shrubs evergreen , 5-10 m tall; bark gray-black. Young branchlets gray or black, longitudinally angular, densely pubescent ; older branchlets with leaf scars raised lunate , lenticels sparsely elliptic or circular. Stipules subulate , minute; petiole 2-3 mm, sulcate , pubescent; leaf blade abaxially greenish, adaxially green, shiny, obovate , elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 1-3.5 × 0.5-1.5 cm, leathery, abaxially glabrous , densely brown glandular punctate , adaxially glabrous except on midvein , rugose when dry, midvein adaxially flat or slightly impressed , pubescent, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, obscure , reticulate veins indistinct, base obtuse or cuneate, margin crenate-serrate, apex rounded , obtuse, or subacute . Male inflorescences: cymes of order 1-3, 1-7-flowered, solitary, axillary on scales or lower leaves of current year™s branchlets, rarely pseudofasciculate on second year™s branchlets; peduncles 4-9 mm; secondary axis ca. 1 mm; pedicels 2-3 mm, bracteoles 1 or 2, subbasal ; 1-flowered pedicels 4-8 mm, bracteoles 1 or 2, submedian; flowers white, 4-merous; calyx patelliform , ca. 2 mm in diam., glabrous, 4-lobed, lobes broadly deltoid, margin erose; petals 4, broadly elliptic, ca. 2 mm, basally slightly connate ; stamens shorter than petals, anthers elliptic; rudimentary ovary conical , apex slightly apiculate or acute. Female inflorescences: cymes of order 1(or 2), 1(-3) -flowered, solitary, axillary on current year™s branchlets; pedicels 3.5-6(-12) mm, distal half slightly thickened, longitudinally ridged ; bracteoles 1 or 2, submedian; flowers 4-merous; calyx ca. 3 mm in diam., 4-lobed, lobes rounded; corolla ca. 6 mm in diam., petals ovate , ca. 3 mm, basally slightly connate; staminodes ca. 1/2 as long as petals, sterile anthers sagittate ; ovary ovoid, ca. 2 mm, style sometimes distinct , stigma discoid , 4-lobed. Fruit black, globose , 6-8 mm in diam.; fruiting pedicel 4-6 mm; persistent calyx explanate, ca. 3 mm in diam.; persistent stigma thickly discoid, ca. 1 mm in diam., conspicuously 4-lobed; pyrenes 4, oblong-ellipsoidal, ca. 5 mm, 3-3.5 mm in diam., abaxially smooth, striate , not sulcate, endocarp leathery. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Aug-Oct. [source]
ID Features: Alternate leaf arrangement and small marginal serrations separate it from. Buxus sp. which has opposite leaves and no serrations. Dense, rigid, multibranched habit. Lustrous evergreen leaves. Black fruit.
Flowers: Dioecious, with male and female plants . Blooms in May into June; not showy. Small, dull white flowers in clusters of 3 to 5 (male). • Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 29000 • Seed Spread Rate: None • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Female plants may produce 0.25" diameter black fruit. Male plants bear no fruit, but are needed as pollinators. Fruit in September - October; often persist until spring . Fruits borne below the foliage and hidden. Fruit is not ornamentally significant. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Black • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Tiny, narrow, dark green, shallowly toothed , oval to ovate glossy evergreen . • Foliage Color: Dark Green • Summer foliage: Dark green, lustrous leaves. Evergreen , usually broadest in the middle . Alternate leaf arrangement . Leaf margin serrate from base to tip . Leaves mostly 1" to 2" long. • Fall foliage: Evergreen , so no fall color. Leaves also shiny in winter season . • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Dense • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow. • Mature Height (feet): 10.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 4 • Size: 6' to 10' tall and at least as wide. Size is variable and dependent on cultivar. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: As a foundation plant. Hedges . Borders . In mass planting . Useful for high quality evergreen foliage . For formal gardens with sheared plantings. • Liabilities: Lack of all around cold hardiness in any location in zone 5. Foliar burn , twig kill in severe winters. Spider mite can be problematic in planting incorrectly sited in hot, dry. locations. Thielaviopsis blight can cause twig death on stressed plants . Somewhat overused in some neighborhoods or regions. Iron chlorosis on high pH soils. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Feeding should be done in early spring or late autumn with a fertilizer formulated for acid-loving broad-leaved evergreens, such as cottonseed meal , rhododendron fertilizer, Miracid®, etc. If pruning becomes necessary, do it in early spring before new growth begins, trimming towards a symmetrical shape .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,918 meters (0 to 16,135 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: No • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Needs protection from drying winter winds. Full sun to partial shade. Easily transplanted from container or B&B. Withstand significant pruning or shearing. Moist, slightly acid soils , well-drained soils are ideal. Tolerant of conditions in urban gardens. Plant 6 feet apart in mass plantings . Plant 3 feet apart in hedges .
Soil: Requires well-drained, slightly acid, fertile soil. • Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 5.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: Medium • Water Requirements: Keep the soil moist during the summer growing season , but allow it to dry somewhat in early fall to allow the new growth to mature enough to resist winter damage.
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 160 • Cold Hardiness: 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Celastranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Celastrus adenophyllus Miquel • I. crenata f. helleri (Craig) Rehder • I. crenata f. kusnetzoffii Loesener • I. crenata f. latifolia (Goldring) Rehder • I. crenata f. longifolia (Goldring) Rehder • I. crenata f. longipedunculata S. Y. Hu • I. crenata f. luteovariegata (Regel) Rehder • I. crenata f. microphylla Rehder • I. crenata f. multicrenata (C. J. Tseng) S. K. Chen • I. crenata f. nummularia (Yatabe) H. Hara • I. crenata f. variegata G. Nicholson • I. crenata var. helleri (Craig) L. H. Bailey • I. crenata var. latifolia Goldring • I. crenata var. longifolia Goldring • I. crenata var. luteovariegata Regel • I. crenata var. major G. Nicholson Ex Dallimore • I. crenata var. mariesii Dallimore • I. crenata var. multicrenata C. J. Tseng • I. crenata var. nummularia Yatabe • I. crenata var. variegata (G. Nicholson) Dallimore • I. euryifolia K. Mori & Yamamoto • I. helleri Craig. • Ilex crenata f. bullata Rehder • Ilex crenata var. aureovariegata Goldring
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ilex
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 299 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
I. ambigua (Carolina Holly) · I. ambigua f. channellii (Carolina Holly) · I. ambigua f. mollis (Carolina Holly) · I. ambigua f. montana (Carolina Holly) · I. amelanchier (Sarvis Holly) · I. anomala (Hawai'i Holly) · I. aquifolium (Broad-Leaved Silver Holly) · I. aquifolium f. albopicta (English Holly) · I. aquifolium f. aureopicta (English Holly) · I. aquifolium var. Siberia Limsi (Siberian English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Alaska' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Angustifolia' (Narrowleaf English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Argenteo-marginata' (Variegated English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Big Bull' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Campus Variegated' (Campus Variegated Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Ciliata Major' (Ciliata Major English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Crispa Aurea' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Ferox Argentea' (Silver Hedgehog English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Golden Milkboy' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Gold Coast' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Lichtenthalii' (Narrowleaf English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Lily Gold' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Monler' (Sparkler® English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Monvila' (Gold Coast® English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Moonlight' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Myrtifolia' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Northern Lights' (Holly 'northern Lights') · I. aquifolium 'Pendula' (Weeping Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Phantom Gold' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Pinto' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Silver Milkmaid' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Silver Queen' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Teufel's Zero' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Twenty Below' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Variegata' (English Holly) · I. aquifolium 'Yule Glow' (English Holly) · I. attenuata (Topal Holly) · I. attenuata f. buxtonica (Topel Holly) · I. attenuata 'Iabof' (Holly 'iabof') · I. cassine (Dahoon) · I. cassine f. glabra (Dahoon Holly) · I. cassine f. hirtella (Dahoon Holly) · I. cassine var. cassine (Dahoon) · I. cassine var. latifolia (Dahoon) · I. collina (Long-Stalked Holly) · I. cookii (Cook's Holly) · I. coriacea (Bay-Gail Holly) · I. cornuta (Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta x latifolia (Holly) · I. cornuta 'Berries Jubilee' (Berries Jubilee Holly) · I. cornuta 'Burfordii' (Burford Holly) · I. cornuta 'Burfordii Nana' (Dwarf Burford Holly) · I. cornuta 'Carissa' (Carissa Holly) · I. cornuta 'Carolina Sentinel' (Holly) · I. cornuta 'Dazzler' (Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta 'Dwarf Burford' (Dwarf Burford Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta 'National' (National Holly) · I. cornuta 'Needlepoint' (Needlepoint Holly) · I. cornuta 'O'spring' (Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta 'Rotunda' (Dwarf Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta 'Sunrise' (Sunrise Variegated Chinese Holly) · I. cornuta 'Willowleaf' (Chinese Holly) · I. creanata'Sky Pencil' (Sky Pencil Holly) · I. crenata (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata f. multicrenata (Japanese Holly) · I. crenata var. convexa f. convexa (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata var. Excelsa Schwoebel (Upright Schwoebel Holly) · I. crenata 'Steeds' (Steeds Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Beehive' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Bennett's Compacta' (Bennett's Compact Holly) · I. crenata 'Chesapeake' (Chesapeake Holly) · I. crenata 'Dwarf Pagoda' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Glory' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Golden Gem' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Golden Heller' (Golden Heller's Japanese Holly) · I. crenata'Green Luster' (Green Luster Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Green Lustre' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Helleri' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Hoogendorn' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Ivory Tower' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Jersey Pinnacle' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Mariesii' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Nigra' (Nigra Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Northern Beauty' (Northern Beauty Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Rocky Creek' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Sentinel' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Skypencil' (Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Sky Pencil' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Snowflake' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Soft Touch' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. crenata 'Steed's Upright' (Japanese Holly) · I. crenata 'Variegata' (Box-Leaved Holly) · I. cuthbertii (Cuthbert's Holly) · I. cyrtura (Ilex) · I. decidua (Deciduous Holly) · I. decidua 'Council Fire' (Council Fire Deciduous Holly) · I. decidua 'Red Cascade' (Deciduous Holly) · I. decidua 'Red Escort' (Possum Haw Holly) · I. decidua 'Sentry' (Sentry Deciduous Holly) · I. decidua 'Warren's Red' (Deciduous Holly)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667598
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-503156
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13760373
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:83193-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 19691
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503156
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 83193-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAQU01170
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ILCR2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 43988
- "Ilex". in Flora of Pakistan Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ilex crenata". in Flora of China Vol. 11 Page 362, 385. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 579.370 meters (1,900.820 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,203.290 based on 16 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]