Common Names in English:
Smooth Cat's-Ear, Smooth Cat´s-Ear, Smooth Cat's Ear, Smooth Cats Ear, Smooth Catsear
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, 10-60 cm; taprooted and with caudices. Stems 1-15, erect
, branched or unbranched, glabrate
or coarsely hirsute
. Leaves basal or basal and proximally cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blades
entire or dentate
to pinnately lobed
or hirsute). Heads borne singly or in loose
, cymiform, paniculiform
. or corymbiform
arrays. Peduncles slightly inflated
distally, minutely bracteate
. Calyculi 0 (or indistinguishable from phyllaries) . Involucres cylindric
, 5-20 mm diam. (12-25 mm in fruit). Phyllaries 20-30 in 3-4 series, unequal. linear-lanceolate, glabrous, glabrate, or coarsely hirsute. Receptacles flat, slightly pitted
, paleate; paleae linear
. Florets 20-100+; corollas usually yellow or orange, sometimes grayish green or reddish abaxially, rarely white, (not deliquescent). Cypselae monomorphic
) or dimorphic
, inner beaked), usually brown to golden, bodies ellipsoid
4-5 or 10. faces ± muricate
, otherwise glabrous; pappi persistent
, of 40-60+, white to tan bristles
in 1 (all plumose
) or in 2 series (outer barbellate
, shorter than plumose inner). x = 4, 5.
Species 60+: introduced ; South America, s Europe, n Africa, Asia.
Hypochaeris is similar to and closely related to Leontodon, from which it is distinguished mainly by its paleate receptacles and unequal phyllaries. Plumose pappus bristles are characteristic of both Hypochaeris and Leontodon. Molecular studies indicate the South American species of Hypochaeris are a monophyletic group derived from European stock that has undergone a recent and rapid radiation in the New World (R. Samuel et al. 2003). Two South American species are found as weeds in the flora area.
Species Hypochaeris glabra
, 10-50 cm. taproots
; caudices small,
± herbaceous. Stems (1-30), sparingly branched at midstem
or distally (lateral
branches often short, minutely bracteate
. Leaves usually all basal; blades
, 20-110 × 5-30 mm, margins
nearly entire to dentate
usually glabrous or glabrate
, sometimes hirsute
on veins. Heads borne singly or 2-3 in loose
, cymiform arrays
(terminating branches, not showy) . Involucres narrowly campanulate
8-16 × (3-) 5-20 mm.
Phyllaries 18-20, lanceolate, 3-18
mm, unequal, margins scarious
, faces glabrous (apices brownish or
reddish, sometimes ciliate
). Florets 20-40; corollas white
to yellowish, 5-8 mm,. equaling phyllaries at flowering. Cypselae
, outer cylindric
, stout, truncate
, inner fusiform
; bodies dark brown, 10-nerved, 8-10 mm, beaks
3-4 mm; pappi
in 2 series, outer barbellate
, shorter than plumose
inner, longest 9-10 mm. 2n = 8, 10, 12. [source]
Hypochaeris glabra is usually distinguishable by its annual habit and relatively small size, slender and shallow roots , fine stems, often glabrous leaves, and beakless, truncate outer cypselae. Occasional specimens are larger and have induments characteristics of H. radicata; they can be distinguished by the dimorphic cypselae. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: under 6" tall.
Grassy slopes , sage scrub , pine-hardwood forest , disturbed areas, roadsides, commonly in sandy soil; 100-1300 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,400 meters (0 to 4,593 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hypochaeris radicata L. glabra (L.) Mateo & Figuerola
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: CONABIO, Caribbean Checklist , African Flowering Plants Database , SANBI, New Zealand Plant Name Database, Flora of Japan, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, MesoAmericana, Tropicos, Euro+Med, Colombia, LCR Editor, Flora of Tasm. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:988550E0-560A-4BB5-8396-A61DE4B129C0
Last scrutiny: 17-Nov-09
Members of the genus Hypochaeris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. brasiliensis (Brazilian Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. brasiliensis (Brazilian Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. tweediei (Tweedys Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. tweedyi (Tweedy's Catsear) · H. glabra (Smooth Cat's-Ear) · H. microcephala (Small-Head Cat's-Ear) · H. microcephala (Sch.Bip.) Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabrera (Smallhead Catsear) · H. microcephala var. albiflora (Smallhead Catsear) · H. microcephala var. microcephala (Smallhead Catsear) · H. radicata (Common Cat's-Ear) · H. sessiliflora (Cats Ear)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658808
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-261
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3027485
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:225505-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 104358
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37792
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST54020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HYGL2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 43785
- David J. Bogler "Hypochaeris". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 214, 216, 297, 298. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Hypochaeris glabra". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 298, 299. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 148.890 meters (488.484 feet), Standard Deviation = 216.670 based on 4,873 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]