The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, 10-60 cm; taprooted and with caudices. Stems 1-15, erect
, branched or unbranched, glabrate
or coarsely hirsute
. Leaves basal or basal and proximally cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blades
entire or dentate
to pinnately lobed
or hirsute). Heads borne singly or in loose
, cymiform, paniculiform
. or corymbiform
arrays. Peduncles slightly inflated
distally, minutely bracteate
. Calyculi 0 (or indistinguishable from phyllaries) . Involucres cylindric
, 5-20 mm diam. (12-25 mm in fruit). Phyllaries 20-30 in 3-4 series, unequal. linear-lanceolate, glabrous, glabrate, or coarsely hirsute. Receptacles flat, slightly pitted
, paleate; paleae linear
. Florets 20-100+; corollas usually yellow or orange, sometimes grayish green or reddish abaxially, rarely white, (not deliquescent). Cypselae monomorphic
) or dimorphic
, inner beaked), usually brown to golden, bodies ellipsoid
4-5 or 10. faces ± muricate
, otherwise glabrous; pappi persistent
, of 40-60+, white to tan bristles
in 1 (all plumose
) or in 2 series (outer barbellate
, shorter than plumose inner). x = 4, 5.
Species 60+: introduced ; South America, s Europe, n Africa, Asia.
Hypochaeris is similar to and closely related to Leontodon, from which it is distinguished mainly by its paleate receptacles and unequal phyllaries. Plumose pappus bristles are characteristic of both Hypochaeris and Leontodon. Molecular studies indicate the South American species of Hypochaeris are a monophyletic group derived from European stock that has undergone a recent and rapid radiation in the New World (R. Samuel et al. 2003). Two South American species are found as weeds in the flora area.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Cichorioideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, Colombia, Paramo. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:5C0D9D36-02DC-42BA-BA80-E371A2A54F74
Last scrutiny: 14-Aug-09
Members of the genus Hypochaeris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. brasiliensis (Brazilian Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. brasiliensis (Brazilian Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. tweediei (Tweedys Catsear) · H. brasiliensis var. tweedyi (Tweedy's Catsear) · H. glabra (Smooth Cat's-Ear) · H. microcephala (Small-Head Cat's-Ear) · H. microcephala (Sch.Bip.) Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabrera (Smallhead Catsear) · H. microcephala var. albiflora (Smallhead Catsear) · H. microcephala var. microcephala (Smallhead Catsear) · H. radicata (Common Cat's-Ear) · H. sessiliflora (Cats Ear)
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- Samuel, R. et al. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Hypochaeris (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) based on ITS, plastid trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, and matK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 496-507.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 03, 2008:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5971703
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-16442
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:225469-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2066059