Common Names in English:
Peelbark St. Johnswort, St. Johnswort
, or perennial
or with simple
, with translucent
("pale") and often opaque
, black or reddish ("dark") glands
and sometimes abaxial
) and marginal
. Leaves opposite [or whorled
], sessile or short petiolate
pinnate to palmate [or rarely dichotomous], margin
entire or gland-fringed. Inflorescence cymose
. Flowers bisexual
, homostylous [or heterostylous], stellate
or cupped. Sepals 5 and quincuncial or rarely 4 and decussate, unequal or equal, free
or partly united
. Petals (4 or) 5, contorted, golden to lemon yellow [or rarely white], abaxially sometimes tinged or veined red, persistent
or deciduous after anthesis
, usually asymmetric
. Stamens in [4 or]5 fascicles, free and antipetalous
, or some united to form apparently 4 or 3 fascicles with compound
, or irregular and apparently not fasciculate, persistent or deciduous, each single fascicle with up to 70[-120] stamens; filaments
slender, free from nearly base
[or to 2/3 united] or apparently completely free; anthers
or ± basifixed
, dehiscing longitudinally, with gland
fascicles (fasciclodes) absent [very rare]. Ovary 3-5-loculed with axile
placentae or ± completely 1-loculed with (2 or) 3[-5] parietal
placentae, each placenta with [2 or] few to many ovules; styles (2 or) 3-5, free or partly to completely united, ± slender; stigmas small or ± capitate. Fruit a septicidal
capsule or rarely ± indehiscent, valves
often with oil-containing vittae or vesicles
. Seeds small, often carinate
or narrowly unilaterally winged
; testa variously sculptured
, not arillate
[very rarely carunculate]; embryo slender, straight, with distinct
About 460 species: almost cosmopolitan except for arctic and desert areas and most of the lowland tropics; 64 species (33 endemic) in China.
Habit: Shrub • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Summer • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 1916000 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Summer and Fall • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: None • Mature Height (feet): 20.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 30 • Size: 24-36" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Care: Shear after flowering to encourage reblooming. Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish an extensive root system . Feed regularly during the growing season with a general purpose fertilizer . Prune annually in late winter to promote vigorous new growth.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 126 meters (0 to 413 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 18-36" apart. Likes cool areas.
Soil: Prefers organic soil. Needs well-drained soil. Good for dry soils. • Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.0 • Maximum pH: 6.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 33 • Maximum Precipitation: 51 • Moisture Use: Low
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -4 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 207 • Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Theanae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hypericum galioides var. reductum Svenson • Hypericum Galioides Fasciculatum • Hypericum galioides Lam. var. fasciculatum (Lam.) Svenson
Publishing author : Lam. Publication : Encycl. (Lamarck) 4(1): 160 1797 [9 Feb 1797]
Members of the genus Hypericum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 124 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
H. acutifolium (Sharpleaf St. Johnswort) · H. adpressum (Creeping St. Johnswort) · H. anagalloides (Tinker's Penny) · H. androsaemum (Sweet Amber) · H. androsaemum L. 'Gladys Brabazon' (Sweet Amber) · H. androsaemum 'Albury Purple' (Sweet Amber) · H. androsaemum 'Esm Cho' (Tutsan 'esm Cho') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Española' (Tutsan 'esm Espa) · H. androsaemum 'Esm Greli' (Tutsan 'esm Greli') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Kalua' (Tutsan 'esm Kalua') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Ora' (Tutsan 'esm Ora') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Pin' (Tutsan 'esm Pin') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Re' (Tutsan 'esm Re') · H. androsaemum 'Esm Wet' (Tutsan 'esm Wet') · H. androsaemum 'Glacier' (Sweet Amber) · H. androsaemum 'Glob Dr205' (Tutsan 'glob Dr205') · H. androsaemum 'Glob Lp208' (Tutsan 'glob Lp208') · H. androsaemum 'Golden Tutsan' (Golden Tutsan St. John's Wort) · H. androsaemum 'Verpeacla' (Tutsan 'verpeacla') · H. ascyron (Great St. Johnswort) · H. ascyron gebleri (Great St. Johnswort) · H. boreale (Northern St. Johnswort) · H. brachyphyllum (Coastalplain St. Johnswort) · H. brathys (St. Johnswort) · H. buckleii (Buckley's St. Johnswort) · H. calcycinum (St. John's Wort) · H. calycinum (Aaron's Beard) · H. calycinum 'Brigadoon' (Aaron's Beard) · H. canadense (Lesser Canadian St. Johnswort) · H. canadense boreale (Lesser Canadian St. Johnswort) · H. canariense (Canary Island St. Johnswort) · H. cerastoides (Hypericum) · H. chapmanii (Apalachicola St. Johnswort) · H. cistifolium (Round-Pod St John´s-Wort) · H. concinnum (Goldwire) · H. crux-andreae (Atlantic St. Peter's-Wort) · H. cumulicola (Highlands Scrub Hypericum) · H. densiflorum (Bushy St. Johnswort) · H. denticulatum (Coppery St. Johnswort) · H. diosmoides (Puerto Rico St. Johnswort) · H. dissimulatum (Disguised St. Johnswort) · H. dolabriforme (Straggling St. Johnswort) · H. drummondii (Nits and Lice) · H. edisonianum (Edison Ascyrum) · H. ellipticum (Pale St. Johnswort) · H. elodes (Marsh Hypericum) · H. exile (Florida Sands St. Johnswort) · H. fasciculatum (Peelbark St. Johnswort) · H. forrestii (Forrests St. Johns Wort) · H. fortuneana 'Purple Fountain' (St. Johns Wort) · H. frondosum (Golden St John´s-Wort) · H. frondosum 'Sunburst' (Cedarglade St. John's Wort) · H. galioides (Bedstraw St. Johnswort) · H. gentianoides (Orangegrass) · H. gramineum (Small St John´s-Wort) · H. graveolens (Mountain St. Johnswort) · H. gymnanthum (Claspingleaf St. Johnswort) · H. harperi (Sharplobe St. Johnswort) · H. hookerianum (Hookers St. Johnswort) · H. humifusum (Trailing St John´s-Wort) · H. humifusum suborbiculatum (Trailing St. Johnswort) · H. hypericoides (Reclining St Andrew's Cross) · H. hypericoides hypericoides (St Andrews Cross) · H. hypericoides multicaule (St. Andrew's Cross) · H. hypericoides subsp. multicaule (St. Andrew's Cross) · H. japonicum (Matted St. Johns Wort) · H. kalmianum (Kalm´s St John´s-Wort) · H. kelleri (Hypericum) · H. lancasteri (Lancasters St. Johns Wort) · H. laricifolium (St. Johns Wort) · H. lissophloeus (Smoothbark St. Johnswort) · H. lloydii (Sandhill St. Johnswort) · H. lobocarpum (Fivelobe St. Johnswort) · H. majus (Large St Johnswort) · H. microsepalum (Flatwoods St. Johnswort) · H. mitchellianum (Blue Ridge St. Johnswort) · H. moseranum 'Tri-Color' (Gold Flower) · H. moserianum (St. Johnswort) · H. multicaule (St. Andrew's Cross) · H. mutilum (Dwarf St Johnswort) · H. myrtifolium (Myrtleleaf St. Johnswort) · H. nitidum (Carolina St. Johnswort) · H. nudiflorum (Early St. Johnswort) · H. oblongifolium (St. Johnswort) · H. olympicum f. minus 'Variegatum' (St. Johns Wort) · H. parvulum (Sierra Madre St. Johnswort) · H. patulum Thunb. 'Sungold' (St. Johns Wort) · H. patulum 'Hidcote' (Hidcote Hypericum) · H. patulum 'Variegatum' (St. Johns Wort) · H. pauciflorum (Fewflower St. Johnswort) · H. perforatum (Common St Johnswort) · H. perforatum chinense (Common St Johnswort) · H. polyphyllum (Rockery St. Johns Wort) · H. prolificum (Cinnamon Stick) · H. pseudomaculatum (False Spotted St. Johnswort) · H. pulchrum (Slender St. Johns Wort) · H. punctatum (Spotted St Johnswort) · H. reductum (St Johns Wort) · H. reptans (Creeping St. John's Wort) · H. revolutum keniense (Forest-Primrose)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 611, p. 75.
- A survey of natural areas in Brunswick County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url , .
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 203, p. 329, p. 55, p. 63, p. 67, p. 81, p. 95.
- Annual report / Florida State Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Fla.: Capital Pub. Co., state printer, url p. 100, p. 125, p. 133, p. 139, p. 141, p. 198, p. 206, p. 245, p. 250, p. 261, p. 284, p. 296, p. 306, p. 312.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 1129, p. 1134, p. 1136.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 1944-1945 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 44.
- Bibliographical index to North American botany; or, Citations of authorities for all the recorded indigenous and naturalized species of the flora of North America, with a chronological arrangement of the synonymy. by Sereno Watson. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1878. url , p. 126, p. 127.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 337.
- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 102, p. 104, p. 106, p. 107, p. 108, p. 109, p. 110, p. 111, p. 112, p. 67, p. 78.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 32 1905 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 113, p. 146, p. 423, p. 430, p. 52, p. 55, p. 560, p. 571, p. 623.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 620.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geo by L.H. Bailey assisted by Wilhelm Miller, PH. D., associate editor, and many expert cultivators and botanists. Illustrated with nearly three thousand engravings and one hundred and forty-five full-pa New York, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906. url p. 792.
- Don, G. A general history of the dichlamydeous plants: comprising complete descriptions of the different orders...the whole arranged according to the natural system /by George Don. 1 1831 London: J.G. and F. Rivington, 1831-1838. url p. 611.
- Economic botany of Alabama. University, Ala., 1913-1928. url p. 272, p. 332.
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 106, p. 94.
- Field, forest and garden botany: a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated / by Asa Gray. New York: American Book, c1895. url p. 82.
- Field, forest, and garden botany; a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the 100th meridian, both wild and cultivated, by Asa Gray. .. Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company url p. 82.
- Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years by Frederick Pursh. .. London: Printed for James Black and son, 1816. url p. 376.
- Flora of Guatemala / Paul C. Standley and Louis O. Williams. 24 1961 Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1961. url p. 47, p. 49.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 789, p. 789.
- Florida wild flowers; an introduction to the flora of the Florida peninsula, by Mary Francis Baker, photographs by the author. New York, The Macmillan company, 1926. url p. 143.
- Gray's school and field book of botany. Consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume. New York, American book company, 1901?, c1887 url p. 82.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 29 1928 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 177, p. 218, p. 250, p. 253, p. 301, p. 324.
- Life-histories of the frogs of Okefinokee swamp, Georgia; North American Salientia (Anura) no.2; by Albert Hazen Wright. New York, The Macmillan company, 1931. url p. 347, p. 464, p. 487.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 213.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 138, p. 394, p. 395.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 126, p. 620.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 620.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 198.
- Report on the geology and agriculture of the State of Mississippi: Jackson, E. Barksdale, State Printer, 1860. url p. 365.
- Resources of southern Alabama: a statistical guide for investors and settlers, with an exposition of some of the principles of economic geography / by Roland M. Harper. University, Ala.: Geological Survey of Alabama, . url p. 54, p. 67.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, American Book Company, 1878-1895/97 [v.2, pt. 1, 1878] url p. 285, p. 286, p. 286.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 1158.
- The American journal of science, & c. New York: J. Eastburn and Co., 1818-1819. url p. 247.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 244, p. 247.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 672.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 41.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 98.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647492
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21438
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13741222
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:433419-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 446580
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21438
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 433417-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCLU030P0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HYFA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 43725
- Xi-wen Li & Norman K. B. Robson "Hypericum". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 1, 2. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 27.380 meters (89.829 feet), Standard Deviation = 42.560 based on 145 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]