Common Names in English:
Waxweed, Waxweed pennywort
, sometimes woody vines
with aerial roots
, rarely perennial
, andromonoecious or dioecious, often with stellate
indumentum or more rarely simple
, with or without prickles, secretory
canals present in most parts. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite (never in Chinese taxa), simple and often palmately lobed
, palmately compound
, or 1-3-pinnately compound
, usually crowded toward apices of branches, base
often broad and sheathing
stem, stipules absent or forming a ligule or membranous border
of petiole. Inflorescence terminal
or pseudo-lateral (by delayed development), umbellate
, compound-umbellate, racemose, racemose-umbellate, or racemose-paniculate, ultimate
usually umbels or heads
, occasionally racemes
or spikes, flowers rarely solitary; bracts usually present, often caducous
, rarely foliaceous
. Flowers bisexual
. Pedicels often jointed
below ovary and forming an articulation
. Calyx absent or forming a low rim
, sometimes undulate
or with short teeth. Corolla of (3-) 5(-20) petals, free
or rarely united
, mostly valvate
, sometimes imbricate. Stamens usually as many as and alternate with petals, sometimes numerous
of disk; anthers
, 2-celled (or 4-celled in some non-Chinese taxa), longitudinally dehiscent
. Disk epigynous, often fleshy
, slightly depressed
or conic, sometimes confluent
with styles. Ovary inferior (rarely secondarily superior in some non-Chinese taxa), (1 or) 2-10(to many) -carpellate; carpels united, with as many locules; ovules pendulous, 2 per locule, 1 abortive
; styles as many as carpels, free or partially united, erect
or recurved, or fully united to form a column; stigmas terminal or decurrent on inner face
of styles, or sessile on disk, circular to elliptic
and radiating. Fruit a drupe or berry, terete
or sometimes laterally compressed
, occasionally vertically compressed
fleshy; pyrenes cartilaginous
or membranous, often laterally compressed. Seeds 1 per pyrene, embryo small, endosperm uniform
About 50 genera and 1350 species: widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, much less diverse in temperate areas; 23 genera (two endemic, one introduced ) and 180 species (82 endemic, seven introduced) in China.
Chinese genera of economic importance include Aralia, Eleutherococcus, Heteropanax, Panax, and Tetrapanax (medicinal), Hedera (ornamental ), Fatsia and Schefflera (medicinal and ornamental), and Kalopanax (timber) .
Recent phylogenetic studies (Plunkett and Lowry, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 19: 259-276. 2001; Wen et al. , Syst. Bot. 26: 144-167. 2001; Chandler and Plunkett, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 123-147. 2004; Mitchell and Wen, Taxon 53: 29-41. 2004; Plunkett et al., S. Afr. J. Bot. 70: 371-381. 2004) have shown that Hydrocotyle Linnaeus belongs to Araliaceae, despite being traditionally included in Apiaceae (see Fl. China 14: 14-18. 2005) .
Diplopanax Handel-Mazzetti was at one time placed in Araliaceae but is now regarded as a member of Mastixiaceae (see Fl. China 14: 231-232. 2005) .
. Stem slender, creeping or decumbent
at the nodes. Leaves petiolate
; stipules present, entire or parted
, membranous; blade
, or reniform
. Inflorescence a simple
umbel; umbels sometimes densely capitate; peduncles axillary
to much longer
than leaves; bracts present or absent; pedicels very short or extended (best seen in fruiting material
). Flowers bisexual
. Calyx teeth minute or obsolete. Petals white, greenish or yellow, valvate
conic to depressed
. Fruit globose
, strongly flattened laterally, base cordate, dorsal surface rounded
(rarely with white hairs
) ; dorsal and lateral
, slender, acute (rarely obsolete) ; vittae inconspicuous. Seed face
; endocarp woody. Carpophore usually absent.
About 75(-100) species: tropical and temperate regions worldwide; 14 species (five endemic) in China.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 581 meters (0 to 1,906 feet).
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Asteranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Hydrocotyle
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 30 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. americana (American Marshpennywort) · H. bonariensis (Coastal-Plain Penny-Wort) · H. bowlesioides (Large-Leaf Penny-Wort) · H. geraniifolia (Forest Pennywort) · H. heteromeria (Waxweed Pennywort) · H. hirsuta (Yerba De Clavo) · H. hirta (Hairy Pennywort) · H. javanica (Pennywort) · H. laxiflora (Stinking Pennywort) · H. leucocephala (Brazilian Pennywort) · H. leucocephala var. intermedia (Brazilian Pennywort) · H. moschata (Musky Marshpennywort) · H. novae-zeelandiae (Hydrocotyle) · H. prolifera (Whorled Marshpennywort) · H. pusilla (Tropical Marshpennywort) · H. ranunculoides (Bullseye) · H. siamica (Large Pennywort) · H. sibthorpioides (Lawn Marshpennywort) · H. sibthorpioides 'Crystal Confetti' (Pennywort) · H. tripartita (Australian Hydrocotyle) · H. umbellata (Many-Flowered Pennywort) · H. umbellata var. ambigua (Water Pennywort) · H. umbellata var. intermedia (Water Pennywort) · H. umbellata var. microphylla (Water Pennywort) · H. umbellata var. umbellulata (Water Pennywort) · H. verticillata (Marsh Pennywort) · H. verticillata var. fetherstoniana (Whorled Marsh Pennywort) · H. verticillata var. verticillata (Whorled Marsh Pennywort) · H. vulgaris (European Marsh Pennywor) · H. vulgaris var. verticillata (Marsh Pennywort)
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- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 196.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 330, p. 342.
- Hoo Gin & Tseng Chang-jiang. 1978. Araliaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 54: i-ix, 1-210.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 10, 2008:
- Qibai Xiang & Porter P. Lowry "Araliaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 435. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Sheh Meng-lan, Mark F. Watson, John F. M. Cannon "Hydrocotyle". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 14. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 512.240 meters (1,680.577 feet), Standard Deviation = 177.150 based on 76 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]