Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Japanese Hop, Kana-Mugura
Common Names in French:
Houblon Du Japon, Houblon Japonais, Houblon Ornemental
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Luppolo Del Giappone
Common Names in Japanese:
Kana Mugura, Kana-Mugura
Common Names in Portuguese:
, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
Herbs, taprooted annuals
, rightward-twining. Stems usually branched, armed
that facilitate climbing
. Leaves simple
, with 2-branched hairs. Leaf blade
mostly cordate, palmately lobed
, sometimes unlobed; surfaces abaxially resin-dotted and×or gland-dotted. Inflorescences: staminate
to pendent, (10-) 20-100+-flowered, flowers small; pistillate
axillary, spikes or racemes
, flowers solitary or paired
, short-pedicellate, subtended by bracts and bracteoles. Staminate and pistillate flowers usually on different plants
. Achenes lenticular
, ensheathed by brownish or sometimes mottled
perianth; embryo coiled
Species 3: temperate Northern Hemisphere.
Species Humulus japonicus
, vining, 0.5-2.5 m.
Stems usually branched. Leaves:
. Leaf blade cordate, palmately
5-9-lobed, 5-12 cm, margins
, apex acuminate; surfaces
abaxially with veins pubescent
, with stiff hairs
, adaxially margins of younger leaf blades with stiff
cystolithic hairs. Inflorescences: staminate
15-25 cm, flower anthers
without glands; pistillate
spikes, conelike, ovoid
; bracteole ovate-orbiculate, 7-10 mm, pilose
margins densely ciliate-hairy. Infructescences
conelike, ovoid to oblong
, (1-) 1.5-3(-4) cm; bracteoles without
yellow glands. Achenes yellow-brown, ovoid-orbicular, inflated
, 4-5 mm, glandless. 2 n = 20, including 6 chromosomes
concerned with sex determination. [source]
Variegated forms of Humulus japonicus, cultivated as ornamentals , are sometimes spontaneous. The vernacular name Japanese hop(s) is occasionally misapplied to H. lupulus var. cordifolius (Miquel) Maximowicz, a variety not found in North America. [source]
The disposition of the name Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill, based on Antidesma scandens Loureiro, is problematic. E. D. Merrill (1935) was convinced that the name A. scandens applied to the species Humulus japonicus. If Merrill was correct, then the combination Humulus scandens would have priority . The material described by Loureiro, however, was not preserved, and his description does not coincide with that of H. japonicus. Humulus scandens is not included in synonymy in this treatment. [source]
I. A. Grudzinskaya (1988) segregated Humulus japonicus as a new monotypic genus, Humulopsis, with the single species Humulopsis scandens (Loureiro) Grudzinskaya. [source]
Habit: Vine , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: green
Size: 6-8' tall.
Roadsides, fencerows, waste places, riverbanks; 0-1000 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,919 meters (0 to 6,296 feet).
Ecology: Invasive: introduced as a cultivated plant .
Duration: Annual , Perennial
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Humulus scandens auct. non (Lour.) Merr.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Humulus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. japonicus (Japanese Hop) · H. japonicus 'Variegatus' (Variegated Japanese Hops) · H. lupulus (Common Hop) · H. lupulus americanus (Common Hop) · H. lupulus L. var. lupuloides E.Small (Arizona Hops) · H. lupulus L. var. neomexicanus A.Nelson & Cockerell (Common Hop) · H. lupulus var. lupuloides (Arizona Hops) · H. lupulus var. lupulus (Common Hop) · H. lupulus var. neomexicanus (Common Hop) · H. lupulus var. pubescens (Common Hop) · H. lupulus 'Apollo' (Hop 'apollo') · H. lupulus 'Aureus' (Aureus Golden Hops) · H. lupulus 'Cascade' (Hops) · H. lupulus 'Fuggle' (Hops) · H. lupulus 'Hallertauer' (Hops) · H. lupulus 'Northern Brewer' (Hops) · H. lupulus 'Nugget' (Hops) · H. lupulus 'Sovereign' (Hop 'sovereign') · H. lupulus 'Sunbeam' (Golden Hops)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667515
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-503065
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13793661
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:854181-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 19414
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503065
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 306594-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCNB0B010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HUSC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 43234
- Zhengyi Wu, Zhe-Kun Zhou & Bruce Bartholomew "Cannabaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 74. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- Mean = 249.410 meters (818.274 feet), Standard Deviation = 259.270 based on 271 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]