Plants small to large, often in dense tufts. Stems erect
or dichotomously to irregularly branched, usually with central strand, often densely radiculose
occasionally deciduous. Leaves in several rows
around the stem, erect or secund
, often falcate-secund, sometimes crispate
, short- to long-lanceolate, whole leaves or their tips sometimes deciduous; costa single, usually strong
to excurrent, sometimes ending in a short to long hyaline
or lamellose on abaxial
surface, rhizoids occasionally on adaxial
or abaxial surface near leaf base
smooth or sometimes distal cells mammillose
on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked
, or toothed
cell ends, pitted
or nonpitted; proximal
, often differentiated in alar
region, sometimes undifferentiated. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent or occasionally present as brood leaves, microphyllous
branches, borne in axils of distal leaves or as rhizoidal tubers. Sexual condition autoicous
, dioicous or pseudomonoicous. Seta solitary or several per perichaetium
, elongate, usually straight, sometimes flexuose or cygneous
. Capsule exserted, erect, inclined
, or sometimes curved
, cylindrical or ovoid
, smooth, ridged, furrowed
or irregularly wrinkled, sometimes strumose
; stomata present or absent, superficial; annulus present or absent, often compound
, deciduous or persistent
; operculum conic or obliquely rostrate
from a conic base; peristome single, usually of 16 lanceolate teeth, deeply divided
into 2 or rarely 3 divisions, usually vertically striolate
or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, naked, sometimes fringed
at base, usually covering most of capsule, fugacious
. Spores mostly spheric, smooth to papillose.
Genera 50-52, species ca. 900 (17 genera, 90 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
Distinctive characters of this large acrocarpous family include the erect, often tomentose stems; mostly narrow, lanceolate, occasionally falcate or falcate-secund leaves, with a single, narrow to broad costa, with or without rhizoids at the base, sometimes ending in a hyaline, occasionally toothed apex, costa in cross section with or without stereid bands , leaf cells usually smooth, sometimes mammillose, or rarely with a single papilla on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked, asexual propagation by specialized deciduous branches, deciduous leaves or leaf apices, rarely rhizoidal tubers; sporophytes usually solitary or rarely clustered, setae mostly elongate, straight or rarely flexuose or cygneous, capsule cylindric to ovoid, erect to horizontal, smooth or ribbed , sometimes strumose, operculum usually obliquely rostrate, peristome single, with 16 teeth often divided 1/2 way to the base, usually striolate or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally.
small to robust
, yellowish green to brownish green, in dense tufts. Stems erect
, usually branched; central strand present. Leaves lanceolate, erect at base
to curled when dry, erect spreading when moist; margins
entire to crenulate
; costa percurrent
to excurrent, smooth
at back or denticulate
at the apex; upper cells
small, rounded-quadrate, thick-walled, smooth; basal cells
elongate-rectangular, thin-walled; alar cells
differentiated, small. Dioicous or autoicous
. Perichaetial leaves sheathing
to convolute at base, long setaceous
toward the apex. Setae erect, 12 per perichaetium
; capsules erect, oblong-ovoid to cylindric
or slightly curved
, smooth; opercula long-rostrate; annuli none; peristome teeth 16, inserted
below the mouth
along the median line or divided
to the middle
. Calyptrae cucullate
, entire at base. Spores spherical
, finely papillose.
Presently, 52 species are recognized in Holomitrium. The genus is primarily distributed in the tropical regions of the world, with only a few species found outside the tropics.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Holomitrium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 30 1957 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 297.
- Flore de Buitenzorg, Leide, E. J. Brill, 1898-1922. url .
- The Philippine journal of science. 3 1908 Manila. url p. 12, p. 211, p. 453.
- Müller, P. and J.-P. Frahm. 1987. A review of the Paraleucobryoideae (Dicranaceae). Nova Hedwigia 45: 283-314.
- Williams, R. S. 1913. Dicranaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora. ..... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 15, pp. 77-158.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 27, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- MOST: Moss TROPICOS Database. Release date: July 19, 2004
- Moss TROPICOS: the World Checklist of Mosses
- Moss TROPICOS DatabaseJul 1, 2004.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3938018
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35182154
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 533918
- Robert R. Ireland Jr. "Dicranaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 12, 39, 331, 358, 360, 426, 427, 433, 440, 443, 444, 548, 564. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Holomitrium". in Moss Flora of China Vol. 1 Page 193. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]